Posts by Lawren

Leadership, what is it and what is the difference between being a manager and being a leader?. Definitions of leadership, there is not a single definition that everyone agrees on. Manfred Kets de Vries, a professor at INSEAD, says that leadership is a set of characteristics, behaviour patterns, personality attributes that makes certain individuals more effective in achieving a set goal or objective.

Another way of describing leadership is to say that, to get the best out of people, individuals, teams, organisations, they need to be led, guided, persuaded, motivated, inspired, to be committed, to do their best, to work together to achieve a common objective. This, rather than the pure management approach of being told, directed, ordered, and treated as subordinates.

True leaders are recognised as being the leader, and their followers accept that they need to be guided by that leader, but they do not feel that they are mere subordinates. A good example is the captain of a sports team – hockey, baseball, netball, cricket, soccer, football, athletics – these are individuals who have an individual role to play, yet find time and ways to motivate and encourage others to do their best, to use their own individual skills, knowledge and experience (scoring goals, defending, winning races, hitting home runs) whilst at the same time working together as a member of the team to achieve team objectives.

There are other ways of defining leadership, managers perform transactions, and leaders bring about transformations.

The transactional manager influences others by appealing to self-interest, primarily through the exchange of rewards and services. The relationship between this type of manager and the follower is seen as a series of rational exchanges that enable each to reach their own goals. Transactional managers supply all the ideas and use rewards as their primary source of power. Followers comply with the leader when it’s in their own interest – the relationship continues as long as the reward is desirable to the follower, and both the manager and the follower see the exchange as a way of achieving their own ends.

The transformational leader inspires followers to not only perform as expected, but to exceed expectations – transformational leaders motivate followers to work for goals that go beyond immediate self-interest, where what is right and good becomes important – these leaders transform the needs, values, preferences and aspirations of followers. They do this so that the interests of the wider group replaces the self-interest of individuals within that group.

It’s interesting that research has shown that the way women leaders describe how they behave, lead, is in line with the transformational style, whereas most male leaders when describing themselves use words and phrases that describe the transactional style. There are exceptions of course, and in some situations the leader can by viewed differently by different groups. Many people in the UK would not describe Margaret Thatcher as transformational in style, but more likely they would use words such as dictatorial, domineering, riding roughshod over opponents, yet others, in her close team for example, describe her as charismatic, motivational, inspirational, kind, supportive.

We can see from this look at Leadership that there are different ways of describing what a leader does, and how, at least in some ways, this is different to how a manager behaves. Individuals recognised as leaders makes it obvious that there are great differences in the way in which certain leaders behave. On the surface there are great differences between the leadership style of Prime Minister Thatcher, and that of the Indian industrialist Rajiv Bajaj. Yet both are widely acknowledged as highly successful leaders. The common factor, it seems, is that all are able to persuade others to follow them, in order to achieve success in their particular field. They all have something that brings diverse people together, to work as a team, to aim for and work hard to achieve a common objective. It is, perhaps, a special talent, or characteristic, or personality trait, or set of circumstances that they find themselves in, or perhaps a combination of all of these. Perhaps leaders are born with this ability, perhaps it is something that can be, or has to be, learned.

CJ Williams is a tutor and management consultant currently working with Brighton School of Business and Management in the UK, specialising in courses taught via distance learning. The writer, CJ Williams, can be contacted at or via

The Extreme Sport Info

Have you noticed that the people who are dedicated to extreme sports seem a little ‘different’ from most other people? Extreme sports enthusiasts seem to have that “darn the torpedoes, full speed ahead” attitude that runs counter to the thoughtful, considered way most people lead their lives. They can’t really help it when they are in the “zone”. When they are in the zone, all the matters is the mission . . . their whole life is no more significant than the moment of execution. Those who study such things as the psychology of athletes, call the “zone” that temporary state of mind where an adrenaline high, awakened by a high-risk endeavor, is (at least temporarily) the absolutely dominant influence in your life.

The zone, as described above, may seem to symbolize a period of extreme irresponsibility, but it is actually a period of extreme focus and near-maximum control – it is a mental state that is similar to, but more intense than, taking that first-ever dive off the high dive at the deep end of the pool. It is also called “the adrenaline effect.”

An important the body reaction

Adrenaline is an important key to the body’s reaction in times of stress, danger or anger. At those times, your brain increases the adrenaline, which increases your heart rate and blood flow. In addition, it increases glucose production (glucose is the “food” your body burns when you exercise) and increases physical stamina — in short, you feel invigorated. This process is called the “fight or flight response;” it gets your body “primed for action” . . . and its somewhat addictive!

These enthusiasts are called, somewhat facetiously, “adrenaline junkies,” and to these extreme sports devotees, it is a colloquialism that fits. They crave activities that require intense concentration and extreme performance, activities such as: bungee jumping, skydiving, hang gliding, mountain climbing and auto racing. Adrenaline junkies, however, are not just into extreme sports. You will find them living extreme lifestyles. These are the same people you will find making their living as SWAT team members, emergency response personnel and members of military Special Forces such as SEALS and Green Berets. Professional gamblers and stock market traders are also “addicted” to the possibility of an enormous win or an enormous loss — the possibilities of which will get anyone’s adrenaline flowing.

How do you find your “zone”?

So how do you find your “zone?” It is not as difficult, or as strenuous (or even as addictive) as it may sound. Those who go in for and, to some extent, become addicted to extreme sports and the adrenaline high, are extreme examples of those in the zone. In simpler and less extreme terms, the zone simply means determination and focus.

You “psych yourself up” for any particular activity (it might be an action sport or it might be passing a mid-term exam) by becoming determined to accomplish your task and by focusing on learning what you need to learn, and doing what you need to do. While you are in that mental state (that zone) you are so focused on your objective that what other people say, think or do is mere background noise. You picture the task and see yourself accomplishing it.

What’s really happening here?

What’s happening is that you are learning to harness the power of your mind. Your body — your muscles may be doing the work but your mind is making the work easier, making the task more comprehensible, making the task more doable. It is the extreme sports version of the “Power of Positive Thinking.” Wow! Deja Vu from 1952! That’s when Dr. Norman Vincent Peale’s self help book was first published and when the seeds were first planted that would grow into millions of success stories.

The power of the mind is an awesome thing! Your mind is like a super-computer that is programming itself every minute of your day with ideas, concepts, idle thoughts, feelings, wishes and desires. The key is staying positive! Staying with the computer analogy, there is a saying amongst computer programmers: “GIGO,” that means “Garbage In — Garbage Out;” in other words, the result of any effort will only be as good (successful) as the effort put into it.


Normally, so the experts say, humans use only a small fraction of their mind’s potential. The amount of additional potential that you might be using when in your zone has not been quantified and is not important — what is important is that, whether participating in an action sport or trying to learn a line of poetry, the focus and determination you use will make success more possible. The only limitations we have are self-imposed limitations — that’s the secret of the zone!

For more articles related to this subject and others please visit

Xtra Info

The financial status of any company is measured by the amount of resources it has along with any claim to those resources the company may have. Claims are also known as equities. So the company financial status would be its economic resources plus the equities, which can be of two types irrespective of the nature of business. These are creditor’s and the owner’s equity. Economic resources are thus made up of two components: creditor’s plus owner’s equity.

In accounting terms, the owner’s equity is also called their ‘assets’ and the creditor’s equity is known as the company’s ‘liabilities’. So the standard accounting equation stands at: Assets=Liabilities + Owner’s Equity. As in any equation, both sides of the equation have to be equal. This equation is important if you wish to analyze the financial health of your company through its daily business activities.

Let us look at an important financial aspect of any business. Assets of a company are its economic resources from where they can earn income in the future. An example of this is real estate or any other property which the company owns, which they can rent out if they want. If the company is owed money, then it is entered under a heading, called accounts receivable, which is purely monetary in nature. However, there are many assets which a company may own which are not tangible or physical in nature. Copy rights, trademarks and patents are some examples of this type of assets which are equally valuable as an economic resource.

Liabilities on the other hand are business obligations which a company carries. Examples are cash payable, providing various types of services to individuals or transferring their assets to another entity. These are known as debts of a company or the money they owe to the market or can owe in future. Legally speaking, having a lot of debts, liabilities and claims are not viewed favorably by any authority as it reflects directly on the financial health of the company. By law the creditors or the people/entity who the company owes money can push the company to sell off its assets if their dues are not paid on time. Creditors yield a lot of power over the owners of the company as they have to be paid their dues in advance, even before the owner has received money. In fact, sometimes a situation may arise that the debts are so high that it eats into the all of company’s economic resources.

Owner’s equities are claims which the business owners make on their own assets. The residual interest is the balance assets of a company which is available after deducting the entity liability amount. Hence the owner’s equity equation is: Owner equity=Assets-Liabilities. When it is a corporation, the owner’s equity can also be referred to as stockholder’s equity. So the equation changes slightly reading as: Assets=Liabilities +Stockholder’s Equity.

Darren Williger is a tea drinking, meditating, low carbohydrate eating, wine making sales maker who writes for, and

Nanotechnology is basically the manipulation of a matter or several matters on a molecular scale. The theory of the technology has been announced since the 1960s, but major researches and developments started during the 1980s. Its introduction to LED production is bringing quality achievements both in lighting solutions and for displays.
LEDs are the most energy-efficient lighting solution on the market, since LEDs convert the majority of energy into light. Still, about 20% of the light emitted by the diode is lost due the high refractive index of LEDs (a certain percentage of the light is reflected back inside the diode and is not emitted eventually). This rate usually depends on the components of the diode. To get this light otherwise lost within the diode, researchers and recently adopted by manufacturers used nanotechnology and created microscopic holes (roughly 400 times narrower than a human hair) on the surface of the diode, usually hundreds of thousands of holes on a single diode.
Since the introduction of Nano imprint technology to this process creating LEDs with nanotechnology it is cheaper and much faster compared to past solutions The so-called Nano LED is a more powerful and efficient LED solution, with definitely lighter emitted. Also, besides reducing the optical loss, recovered light leads to less heat built up within the diode. This way, LEDs can be packed closer to each other, and also have a generally longer lifespan. Another, additional benefit of Nano-LEDs is their high CRI, and a wider range of colour temperature.
An early application of the technology was not even in lighting solutions but in television displays, where nanotechnology resulted in a new generation of LED TVs. First LED televisions are not real LED solutions, they are actually LCD TVs with LED backlighting from the sides. With nanotechnology, LED TVs are created with a full array of LEDs, behind a panel of microscopic or nano dots letting light through emitted by LEDs. This way light is dispersed more evenly, giving the displayed picture more definition, clarity and smoothness. This technology also allows the display to be thinner: the first TV manufactured with the technology is the LG LEX8, which is only 0.88 cm thin.
Nanotechnology brings new, fascinating results regularly. In the field of lighting, one of the latest news is nano-LEDs grown as wires. This technology was accidentally discovered September 2010, when chemists Babak Nikoobakht and Andrew Herzing experimented with growing nano-wires horizontally. With the increased thickness of the gold catalyst, the nanowires grew a nanowall, which electrons can flow across. Charged with electricity the wires produced light, thus researchers named the phenomenon as nano-LED. This technology will allow adding lighting to microscopic solutions, yet its full scale of potentials is undiscovered.
Similarly interesting achievement of nanotechnology in lighting could be the solutions of Academia Sinica and the National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan, where professors implanted gold nanoparticles into leaves of trees, thus creating a bio-luminescent red light. These bio-LEDs need further development, but the aim is to create trees providing street light along roads. Presumable the trees would also absorb CO2 during the night, which is an additional level of photosynthesis.
Nanotechnology used for creating further lighting solutions is a promising future in the most unconventional forms of lighting. Biological lighting or organic lighting are both key perspectives in eco-friendly illumination, which makes research for lower cost and better performing LEDs crucial. is a company that offers a wide range of low and main voltage, eco-friendly, energy efficient and cool running LED lights, like car lights, LED GU10, LED MR11, LED MR16, G4 LEDs and B22/E27 light bulbs and flexible LED strip lights ideal for homes, offices, shops, boats or caravans. For more information, visit their site at

If someone were to talk about people who live in conditions of poverty, you might expect them to be talking about people who live in developing countries or in a location where a natural disaster has recently occurred. Would you be surprised to learn that over 14 million American children live below the poverty level today? Most people in this country would be shocked to hear that number. Do we simply look at the forest of reasonably well-off people in America and forget to look at the individual trees?

Especially during the past few years of economic downturn, the problem of children in poverty is becoming a topic of which more and more people are becoming aware. There are many reasons for poverty, but with many jobs being lost and homes being foreclosed on recently, more and more people are unable to meet the high cost of living. The children are the innocent victims of circumstances beyond the control of their families. If there is not enough money, the children are undernourished, have limited educational opportunities, and minimal health care. This means that they are growing up without the advantages that most Americans take for granted.

Once you are aware of the magnitude of this problem, you will probably ask yourself what you can do to help. It may seem overwhelming and like nothing you can do could possibly make a dent. However, the little you are able to do could help one child receive needed medical care or nutritional supplies. It will make a difference to that one child. If you tell someone else about the problem and let them know that you are helping and ask them to help as well, it will make the difference to another child. One by one, the children can be helped out of this terrible situation.

Once you have decided that you can make a difference, you may wish to know how to go about finding ways to help. Many Church and Civic groups work with children who are living below the poverty level. They love to have volunteers and donations and can get you started on a path to empowering the children. There are also many other charitable organizations who have studied this problem and know how to put the least amount of money to the best use, so you know that every dollar counts. You can search online for charitable organizations dedicated to feeding America’s hungry children and make donations through them. No matter how you are able to help, don’t let another day go by without doing something for a hungry child.

The American Relief Foundation invites you to help us provide poor children around the US with support they need. We are looking for a Suffolk County Car Donation to help our cause. If you have an unwanted car consider a charity car donations.

If you’re looking for some useful tips for overcoming obesity, then this article was written for you. In particular, we’re going to talk about exercise, eating healthier and tracking your progress. By the time you have finished reading this article, you’ll have a good general overview of how to deal with this naturally and healthily.

Tip 1 – Start exercising.

If you’re inexperienced when it comes to regular exercise, then it’s wise to start slow. Simply walking for an hour a day (or however long you can comfortably manage) is a good start. If you can, it’s even better to start a higher intensity program – such as using an exercise bike or elliptical machine to achieve a harder aerobic workout. It’s also easier on the joints than jogging or running.

You may want to consider joining a gym, where you can receive detailed help, advice and support in person from a qualified professional.

Tip 2 – Clean Your Diet.

Obesity is often caused by a poor diet and emotional eating. You will need to cut down on the unhealthy snacks, and replace them with healthier alternatives. Also try to eliminate processed foods, as these are often high in calories, and contain preservatives which won’t help you lose weight.

To prevent hunger, eat smaller meals every 3 hours. This keeps your metabolism running fast, without falling into the habit of snacking. Throw out all your unhealthy snacks, and replace them with fruit.

Tip 3 – Track Your Progress.

This is a crucial step to keeping yourself motivated, and helping you find the will power to conquer bad habits. Don’t rely on the scales alone to track progress. Take measurements around your stomach, arms, waist, legs and anywhere else you want to lose weight. You may notice your progress here much quicker than the scales, and it will give you the motivation you need to continue with your lifestyle change.

Want to learn more about how to overcome obesity? Then you should check out my blog – I’ll show you a fitness system which doesn’t require major life style changes, expensive equipment or supplements – but will make you stronger, fitter, help you to lose weight, and can really give you the body you desire. Click here to visit now:

Delegating time consuming tasks to people who can do them better is the key to expanding your business which is why outsourcing has become so important to successful online businesses. Yes, you do need to pay a price for everything you outsource but the investment you make will give you huge returns if you manage it the right way.

In order to be successful with outsourcing you must master ways to minimize your risks. The fact that you are outsourcing in general means you’re taking a risk. This is why it’s so important for you to reduce risks elsewhere. You make that happen by figuring out all the risks that outsourcing presents and developing a plan for dealing with them. You can start by only choosing vendors that have a record of making customers happy. There are many things that you can do to make sure your risk comes down. Begin with the creation of your outsourcing risks list and then you can see what your next move should be.

Find a good project manager to take control of the project. Some things are impossible to skip, a good project manager is one of those things. That’s one job that shouldn’t be outsourced. Keep your project manager hopping around and super busy managing your many outsourced projects.

Avoid the temptation to get too many outsourcing balls in the air. Believe it or not, this is one time when less really is better – less stress and better results.

To conclude, we have seen that outsourcing can change your business and offer you a high ROI. But in order to get the most out of it, you need to be smart in making the right moves and hiring the right person. Starting small is the key and once you have the experience and the confidence, you can go for bigger projects. Remember, being consistent is the key and success comes one small step at a time.


Great search engine marketing are important if you are to rank well in the search engines and get more free information from now.

How safe is the food you’re eating? Do you know what went into it? According to a January 9, 2009 article by Sarah Hills of The Food Navigator, titled, “Food Terrorism Tops 2009 Safety Scare List”, she quotes her source, Bill Marler as saying, “Food safety will be a major concern for President-elect Barack Obama after his inauguration this month, and it is a vital part of the overall health of our country and our economy.

Mr. Maler, who is a food safety advocate and managing partner of the law firm Marler/Clark, represents the victims of food-borne illness outbreaks, and is claiming that there has been a continued rise of the potentially fatal bug, E. Coli. According to his firm, economic terrorism and deadly strains of E. Coli are among the main food supply issues that manufacturers could face in the United States in 2009.

According to this article, Mr. Maler continues to say, “Top of the list (of issues Obama will need to deal with) is the globalization of the food supply, including the possibility of economic or chemical terrorism…which is the intentional adulteration of the food supply…” He adds, “This year there will be more international recalls and outbreaks due to the expanding globalization of the food supply.” There will be more “challenges of oversight/infrastructure in developing countries, which include bioterroism, where harmful biological substances are intentionally used to create widespread illness and fear, as well as economic/chemical terrorism.” He also predicted outbreaks linked to local food and/or farmers markets and more contamination events involving the whole food chain, from animal feed, to animals, to humans. Mr. Maler goes on to say, “The new Obama administration will be facing enormous challenges.” These statements mirror another sensational statement made by Joe Biden back in October of 2008, when he said that, “Obama would have to undergo an ordeal during his first six months of his presidency. And that is would be the time of a very serious international crisis!” Although a cryptic remark, what was he eluding to? No one really knows, but the potential of a biological attack on our food supply is plausible.

According to French and Israeli intelligence reports, if America goes to war with Iran, “they” can expect a swift retaliation against the remaining American food supply by Iranian agents. The former U.S. Health Secretary, Tommy Thompson, worried about this before leaving office in 2003, when he stated, “I, for the life of me, cannot understand why terrorists have not attacked our food supply, because it is so easy to do.”

The possibility of bio-attacks upon the American food supply is becoming an all too real scenario! We must take action and prepare for these possibilities… in our families and communities. We need to be obtaining and consuming healthy foods if we’re to be fit enough to survive what may come.

In order to know that the food we are consuming is healthy food, we must know where it came from, and what went into it. Also, the more “processed” a food, the less likely it will contain any real food value. This doesn’t even take into account food which has been purposefully contaminated. Therefore, when in doubt, choose food which has been less tampered with, for example, raw food.

Another solution is to grow your own food and can or preserve the food you have raised. This way, you know exactly what you are getting. In this way, you can assure yourself and your family of getting the most nutritious food possible. Plus, you might have extra to barter with, give away, or sell.

The bottom line is this: To the degree that we can control exactly what goes into the food we are eating, is the degree that we can remain unaffected by any food contamination going on around us–whether accidental or on purpose.

So, lets get involved in becoming the fittest we can be–and not leave it up to somebody else. This way we can be assured of “surviving” come what may.

C.L. Carr has been living off the grid and practicing self-sufficiency for many years. For tips and guidelines pertaining to the issues addressed in this article and many other, please visit or

Have you always dreamed of working in the information technology field? If so, you are not alone. Many people are working dead-end jobs only to realize there is no job security. They work long, hard hours and sometimes without benefits. Many people are realizing how the information technology field creates job security and better lives. It is no wonder viewing how great financial security is in the IT field that you want to change your career goal.

Many people in different situation are seeking to change their careers. Some people are already in the information technology field and looking to join other companies while staying in the information technology field. Others are not working in the technology field and some want to earn some form of IT degrees. If you were unhappy in your current job, it would probably be a great idea to change your career. Loving your job while being paid to do it is what everyone should aim for.

Great advice before you change your career to the IT field is that you should be ready to constantly evolve because that is precisely what the IT field is doing. The IT field is never dormant, ever changing and you must be flexible and willing to change right along with the field of IT.

There are jobs in Information Technology to fit most any personality. If you enjoy being around people or you do not have great people skills, there is virtually jobs for almost every personality type in the Information Technology field.

Do not think for a second that your past experience or education will not prove relevant to the IT field. The IT field exists in any industry therefore; make sure you realize how valuable your background is as you change your career. Your knowledge and background will only make you an asset considering you are interested in the IT field.

James Copper is a writer for where you can find information on how to get a career in IT