Archive for the ‘Articles On Earthquakes’ Category

An earthquake, the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust, is measured with a seismometer. An earthquake with magnitude 3 or lower is mostly imperceptible while magnitude 7 can cause serious damage over large areas. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and sometimes volcanic activity. In contrast, earthquakes are caused by volcanic activity, landslides, and nuclear tests.

 

Seismic waves which carry with them an enormous amount of energy travel through the Earth’s crust. The earthquake which seismic waves cause will vary in strength and duration. This depends on the strength of the seismic waves. Let’s discover how earthquakes happen.

 

The earth is divided into an inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The earth’s surface is the layer called the crust which is divided into many segments called plates.

 

The crust is broken into plates.

 

Many earthquakes take place along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates which are moved around by the motion of a deeper part of the mantle.

 

Rock layers are forced upwards creating mountains at the place of plates’ collision.

 

Where plates diverge, lava emerges from the mantle and cools to form new sections of crust.

 

Two plates move into each other or slide past each other.

 

Point of friction

 

The point within the earth where an earthquake rupture starts is called the hypocenter.

 

Primary waves (longitudinal or compressional waves) and S-waves (transverse or shear waves)

 

Surface waves radiable outwards from the epicenter which is the point directly above it on the surface of the Earth.

 

Particle motion

 

Love waves, named after British mathematician A.E.H Love, is a surface wave having a horizontal motion that is transverse to the direction the wave is traveling.

 

The largest earthquake with 9.5 magnitude occurred on 22 May 1960. Its epicenter was near Canete, Chile. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, one of the largest recorded earthquakes which have all been megathrust earthquakes, is one of the deadliest earthquakes in history. In January 2010, the worst 7.0 magnitude earthquake in two centuries struck less than ten miles from the Caribbean city of Port-au-Prices, Haiti, causing damages to Haitian.

 

 

Related links:

Surviving Earthquakes — the Basics

Earthquakes – Five Myths

What are Earthquakes ?

I am 25 years old, and I study materials on education, likes reading and writing. In free time, I often join literature clubs and share my interest with others.

Scientists now worry about the increase of the frequency and intensity of earthquakes. Is this a sign that our planet is just resonating with our own individual and societal psyche in 2012? Or, just a blip on the radar screen? Are we worried about it?

At least 111 people are confirmed killed in Samoa, neighboring American Samoa and Tonga. Officials in the Pacific region have expressed fears the toll will rise as rescue workers struggle to reach outlying villages. The quake hit the small cluster of Samoan islands in the South Pacific early Tuesday.

Around 220,000 people live on the two main islands which make up the nation of Samoa. The population of the U.S. island territory of American Samoa is about 66,000.

In Tonga, Lord Tuita, the acting prime minister, said at least seven people had been confirmed dead on the northern island of Niuatoputapu. Three others were missing and four people were being treated for serious injuries, he said. “The hospital on the island is reported to have suffered major damage; telephone communications has been cut as a result of damage to equipment and facilities on the island; homes and government buildings have been destroyed; the airport runway has been severely damaged making it impossible for any fixed wing aircraft to land,” a statement from the Tongan prime minister’s office said.

Meanwhile, there’s yet another earthquake getting attention.

A major earthquake that struck Indonesia this morning killing at least 13 people and injured hundreds more just from initial reports. The 13 were crushed when the quake collapsed buildings, said Rustam Pakaya, head of the Ministry of Health’s crisis center. Hundreds more were injured, he said. The state-run Antara news agency said the earthquake “killed tens of people and destroyed hundreds of buildings including houses, shopping centers and mosques.”

My take is that we’re swimming in some deep waters for which there are no normality.

 

As a spiritual-futurist, I have a BA degree majoring in history. One cannot know the future without knowing the past which holds clues to what is on the horizon. The world is in such a rapid expansion of knowledge that we are close to entering a tipping point that will forever change earth as we know it.

SOURCE: http://www.abcnews.com

News Articles:

11 Earthquakes Jolt North Texas in 24 Hours
http://www.weather.com/news/news/irving-dallas-texas-earthquake

12 earthquakes rattle North Texas in 48 hours
http://www.fox4news.com/story/27775170/usgs-confirms-another-n-tx-earthquake

Nine earthquakes rattle North Texas in under 24 hours
http://www.foxnews.com/us/2015/01/07/nine-earthquakes-rattle-north-texas-in-under-24-hours/

Texas trembling! Lone Star State hit by 9 earthquakes in 1 day
http://rt.com/usa/220483-texas-oil-fracking-earthquake/

FAIR USE NOTICE: This video may contain copyrighted material. Such material is made available for educational purposes only. This constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Title 17 U.S.C. section 106A-117 of the U.S. Copyright Law.

#1 Risk to Earth: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVgUZv9ccyQ
Quake Breakthrough Papers: http://www.spaceweathernews.com/spf

http://www.Suspicious0bservers.org 
http://www.SpaceWeatherNews.com
http://www.MagneticReversal.org
http://www.ObservatoryProject.com
EarthChanges: http://earthchanges.org

Solar Alerts on Twitter: https://twitter.com/TheRealS0s
THE DISASTER PREDICTION APP: http://kck.st/1RO4K82

Good Videos/Articles:
The Sun is Going to Sleep: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7whL9jvdL5s
Earth’s Magnetic Reversal: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sIayxqk0Ees
Top 6 Climate Change Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ew05sRDAcU
Pause on Pausing the Pause: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZH46p7MUlw
Sun Series: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLHSoxioQtwZcJj_9clLz7Bggso7qg2PDj
IPCC History: http://www.suspicious0bservers.org/selections-from-the-1st-ipcc-full-report-wg1/

Today’s Featured Links:
EarthChanges: http://earthchanges.org
Mercury/Sunspots: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.05028v1.pdf
Artificial Meteors: http://www.accuweather.com/en/weather-news/unprecedented-man-made-meteor-shower-to-kick-off-2020-tokyo-olympics/57470527
Habitable Europa? http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6514
Cold Watery Brown Dwarf: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.04902v1.pdf

Original music by NEMES1S

WORLD WEATHER:
Numbered WindMap: Windyty.com
Earth WindMap: http://earth.nullschool.net/#current/wind/isobaric/850hPa/orthographic=-345.32,51.43,481
Global Maps: http://www.atmos.albany.edu/student/kgriffin/maps/
NDBC Buoys: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/
HurricaneZone Satellite Images: http://www.hurricanezone.net/westpacific/animations.html
NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory: http://www.nnvl.noaa.gov/Default.php
Satellite Maps: http://www.woweather.com/cgi-app/satellite?LANG=us&CONT=namk
Forecast Maps: http://www.woweather.com/weather/maps/forecastmaps?LANG=us&CONT=usus
TORCON: http://www.weather.com/news/tornado-torcon-index [Tornado Forecast for the day]
HURRICANE TRACKER: http://www.weather.com/weather/hurricanecentral/tracker
GOES Satellites: http://rsd.gsfc.nasa.gov/goes/
THE US WINDMAP: http://hint.fm/wind/
Severe Weather Threats: http://www.weather.com/news/weather-severe/severe-weather-tracker
Canada Weather Office Satellite Composites: http://www.weatheroffice.gc.ca/satellite/index_e.html
Temperature Delta: http://www.intellicast.com/National/Temperature/Delta.aspx
Records/Extremes: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/records/

SOHO Solar Wind: http://umtof.umd.edu/pm/
Planetary Orbital Diagram – Ceres1 JPL: http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=ceres;orb=1;cov=0;log=0;cad=0#orb
SDO: http://sdo.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/
Helioviewer: http://www.helioviewer.org/
SOHO: http://sohodata.nascom.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/soho_movie_theater
Stereo: http://stereo.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/images
iSWA: http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov/iswa/iSWA.html
NASA ENLIL SPIRAL: http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov:8080/IswaSystemWebApp/iSWACygnetStreamer?timestamp=2038-01-23+00%3A44%3A00&window=-1&cygnetId=261
Gamma Ray Bursts: http://grb.sonoma.edu/
BARTOL Cosmic Rays: http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu//spaceweather/welcome.html
ISWA: http://iswa.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov:8080/IswaSystemWebApp/
GONG: http://gong2.nso.edu/dailyimages/
GONG Magnetic Maps: http://gong.nso.edu/data/magmap/ondemand.html

MISC Links:
OLR: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/map/clim/olr.shtml
JAPAN Radiation Map: http://jciv.iidj.net/map/
RADIATION Network: http://radiationnetwork.com/
LISS: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/monitoring/operations/heliplots_gsn.php
QUAKES LIST FULL: http://www.emsc-csem.org/Earthquake/seismologist.php
RSOE: http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/index2.php [That cool alert map I use]
Moon: http://www.fourmilab.ch/earthview/pacalc.html
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Earthquakes can be a terrifying experience for anyone who has experienced them, especially children who may not understand what is going on. The following is an explanation of earthquakes and the safety steps that should be taken in the event of this type of natural disaster.

Earthquakes are caused by plates underneath the surface of the earth shifting their position. In certain areas, two of these plates are shifting at the same time, creating friction and leading to an eventual break. An earthquake is the vibration that is felt as a result of this break.

One area in the United States that experiences earthquakes is the San Andreas Fault in California. It runs from Northern California to the Gulf of California and minor movement is detected here thousands of times annually, although many of these are not felt by the residents in the nearby areas. The largest earthquake in United States history occurred in 1906 because of movement at this fault line, affecting San Francisco and killing approximately 3,000 people. This earthquake caused around $ 400 million in damage.

Since earthquakes happen quite suddenly, you should make sure that your children know what to do in case they are ever caught in one. You can teach them the “drop, cover, and hold on” safety method. If they are inside during an earthquake, they should keep calm and climb under a heavy object such as a desk or table. They should hold onto the object until the shaking has passed. The children should avoid windows and any objects that could fall on them, such as a cabinet or locker. If the children are outdoors, they should move away from street lights and utility poles as well as buildings.

If they are caught in a public place, the children should again climb under something heavy. You should explain to them not to try to exit the building as many people will be attempting to leave at the same time. They should also not enter an elevator during an earthquake or right after, as the aftershocks can cause damage as well.

If you and your family are driving when a tremor strikes, you should try to pull over into an area that does not have wires or poles above your vehicle. Remain calm and wait the tremor out before proceeding on your way. If you are in a mountainous area, you may also need to avoid falling rocks and other debris that has been loosened by the quake.

Immediately after an earthquake, there are aftershocks, as was mentioned earlier. These are minor earthquakes follow a major one in the same general location. Your children should remain undercover until they are sure that the aftershocks are finished as well.

After the earthquake, there are still a variety of safety measures that your children need to be aware of. If they are at home and hear a hissing noise or smell fumes, they should leave the house immediately and call for help. This noise and smell could be a broken gas line that could explode or lead to a serious fire. If they are going outside, they should be sure to wear shoes as there is probably broken glass and other foreign debris lying in the streets.

Earthquakes are one of the most deadly natural occurrences due to the fact that there is almost no advanced warning when they occur. By teaching your children the “drop, cover, and hold on” safety method, they will be able to take care of themselves in case they are caught in an earthquake.