Archive for the ‘Articles On Human Rights’ Category

Human Rights Day (December 10, 1998) marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted this document. It is not legally binding on the signatories, but it has moral force that commands worldwide respect. Thus, the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a standard by which many people throughout the world judge the conditions of citizenship and government internationally and within their own countries. This document, which includes 30 articles pertaining to various human rights, is also a focal point of education about human rights in schools throughout the world.
“Human rights are the claims that all human beings are justly entitled to make merely by virtue of their being human” (Plattner 1995, 573). In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when this idea became prominent in Western Europe and North America, it carried the label “natural rights” to denote derivation of these rights from the nature of every human being. Each person, according to the natural rights concept, possesses equally certain immutable rights by virtue of her or his membership in the human species; it is the duty of a just government to protect these rights.
The United States Declaration of Independence, adopted July 4, 1776, expresses the “natural rights” idea in these memorable words: “We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these Rights Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the Consent of the Governed. That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the right of the People to alter or Abolish it and to institute new Government . . . ”
This Declaration of Independence by and for the people of a new American nation still has global implications. The same can be said about the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen issued by France’s National Assembly in 1789, which proclaimed: “The end of all political associations is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man; and these rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance of oppression.”
The 1787 Constitution and the 1791 Bill of Rights of the United States of America were designed and adopted to address the civic values of the 1776 Declaration of Independence. This Constitution reflects the understanding among America’s founders that the individual’s rights are at risk if a government is either too strong or too weak. A good government simultaneously is empowered and limited. It is empowered sufficiently by the people to secure their rights against domestic or foreign predators. And this government’s power is also limited sufficiently by the supreme law of its constitution to protect the people’s rights against abuses by their own governors.
During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the concept of natural rights was transformed into the idea of human rights. This change reflected an expansion of the scope or range of rights to include two types of claims.
The first and older type is negative; it would limit the power of a government to protect peoples’ rights against its power. The second and newer type of claim is positive; it would enhance the power of the government to do something for the person to enable her or him in some way. Thus, the late twentieth century idea of human rights, which incorporates both the positive and negative types, means that “certain things ought not to be done to any human being and certain other things ought to be done for every human being” (Perry 1998, 13).
The older negative claims on rights are exemplified by Articles 1-21 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These Articles imply that no government or society should act against individuals in certain ways that would deprive them of inherent political or personal rights, such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion. The newer positive claims on rights are exemplified by Articles 22-28 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They imply that every government and society should act for individual members to enable them to enjoy certain social and economic rights or benefits pertaining to social security, employment, housing, education, health care, and general standard of living.
There is general or global agreement among advocates of human rights that both types of rights, the negative and positive, must be included in a worthy constitutional government. However, there is worldwide conflict or disagreement about which type of rights is primary and most important in a constitutional democracy.
Advocates for the primacy and predominance of positive rights claim that “bread is more important than freedom of speech.” They argue that the duties of government to provide social and economic welfare benefits for all the people require enhancement of public power and authority to enter all areas of economic and social life to promote the common good (Patrick 1991, 622).
By contrast, proponents of the negative rights tradition worry about the enormous increase of centralized government power required to provide positive rights through large-scale public programs. This could lead to a government so powerful and insufficiently limited that it could arbitrarily deprive particular persons (those out of favor with authorities) of their traditional personal and political rights. Thus, they maintain that human rights generally depend upon the primacy of guaranteed negative rights. They assert: a constitutional democracy that would only recognize negative rights is incomplete; one that would only or primarily recognize positive rights is impossible (Patrick 1991, 623).

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Five top human rights activists in 2010 continue to be confronted with their governments, against the violation of human rights. They continue to risks and threats in their daily struggle to put pressure on their governments to respect human rights for all. I herby detail Five amazing super human rights activists who defend human rights for all.
 1. Liu Xiaobo, China
 Liu Xiaobo is one of the critics of the Chinese government. He spent a year and a half in prison after the 1989 protests in Tiananmen Square peaceful against violations of human rights. In 1996, Liu Xiaobo was jailed for three years for criticizing the Chinese policy toward Taiwan and the Dalai Lama. During 2009, Liu Xiaobo was sentenced to 11 years longer for the co-author of Charter 08, a petition to mark the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A former university professor, Liu Xiaobo was recently nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Human Rights Watch honors for Liu Xiaobo for his courageous commitment to freedom of expression and assembly in China.
 2. Milashina Elena, Russia
 Human rights activist Elena Milashina is an investigative reporter at Novaya Gazeta, Russia’s leading independent newspaper, Elena Milashina exposes the truth about violations of human rights and widespread corruption of government in Russia. Despite attempts by Russia to silence its critics and hide abuses, Elena Milashina remains openly human rights activist. He continued to publish accounts of abuse of human rights regarding enforced disappearances, extrajudicial executions and torture. She also conducts its own investigation into the murder of brass of a major Chechen human rights defender, Estemirova, calling for accountability at the highest level. Human Rights Watch honors for Elena Milashina for his courage to confront Russia are deeply problematic human rights.
 3. Sussan Tahmasebi, Iran
 Sussan Tahmasebi, a human rights activist for the past two decades, intends to strengthen the human rights of Iranian gender issues and women’s rights. Sussan Tahmasebi has conducted training in leadership and peace building, continues to facilitate collaboration between the Iranian and international civil society, and is a founding member of the award winning One Million Signatures Campaign. The support of the campaign rallies for the end of the Iran gender-biased laws. Tahmasebi was harassed by security forces and was forbidden to travel abroad for more than two years because of its abuse tally declaration of human rights. Human Rights Watch honors the intent of Sussan Tahmasebi for his dedication to the promotion of civil society and make the rights of women a national priority in Iran.
 4.Hossam Bahgat, Egypt
 Human rights activist Hossam Bahgat is the founder and director of the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR), Hossam Bahgat defends civil rights and freedoms in Egypt. He speaks against the government’s violations of religious freedom and the right to privacy. Hossam Bahgat recently won a lawsuit against the Department of the Interior on behalf of the Baha’is in Egypt and has played a leading role in denouncing sectarian violence against Coptic Christians – minorities face discrimination often. Human Rights Watch honors for Hossam Bahgat enforce individual freedoms for all Egyptians.
 5. Julian Assange, Wikileaks
 Human rights activist Julian Assange is an Internet activist best known for his involvement in Wikileaks, a whistleblower website.. It is now Wikileaks spokesman and editor.
 Julian Assange exposes the truth about violations of human rights and widespread killing by government in Iraq and Forces United States. Despite attempts by US to silence its critics and hide abuses, Julian Assange remains openly human rights activist. He continued to publish accounts of allegations of torture and unlawful killings in the conflict in Iraq.
 Julian Assange was the winner of the 2009 Amnesty International Media, awarded for having denounced the extrajudicial killings in Kenya in the investigation.. He also won the 2008 Prize economist Index on Censorship. Assange said that Wikileaks published documents classified higher than the rest of the world’s press gathered. How is it that a team of five people managed to make publicly available details suppressed at this level as the rest of the world’s press gathered? It is Shame.
 On June 3, 2010, he appeared via video conference at the Personal Democracy conference with Daniel Ellsberg. Daniel Ellsberg told MSNBC’s “explanation that [Assange] used” for not appearing in person in the United States was that “it was not safe for him to come to this country.” On June 21, 2010 Assange attended a hearing in Brussels, Belgium, appearing in public for the first time in nearly a month.. He told the Guardian that he does not fear for his safety, but is on constant alert and avoids travel in America, saying: “[U.S.] public pronouncements were reasonable. But certain statements made in private, are a little more questionable. “He said “politically it would be a great mistake for them to act. I feel perfectly safe, but I was advised by my lawyers not to travel to the United States during this period.
 Human Rights UN chief Navi Pillay urged Iraq and the United States to investigate allegations of torture and unlawful killings in the conflict in Iraq has revealed in documents made by Wikileaks ,Julian Assange is editor in chief. The Gulf Cooperation Council, which includes six U.S. friendly Arab monarchies, urged Washington to “open a serious investigation and transparent” about possible “crimes against humanity.” Groups campaigning for human rights have also called for a probe, with headquarters in New York Human Rights Watch saying that the U.S. may have violated international law if it knowingly transferred prisoners to places of potential abuse.
 The head of the UN Human Rights has also called on Iraq to accede to the Convention against Torture, which prohibits the practice, and facilitate visits by UN monitors in Iraq to the detention centers.
 Without doubt, Julian Assange is the fifth super amazing human rights activists in the 2010.

Gaurav Virk, the author has a strong motivation to support human-rights and publish research on rights articles worldwide info: He is currently a final year student of computer applications (MCA) and Diploma in Human Rights.

Listen to and read Articles 1-30 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, signed in 1948.