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The progress of HDMI and High Definition has been rapid. There have been over 8 versions of HDMI cable since it’s introduction back in 2002. In this article we explore the time line of HDMI.

All HDMI cables (High Definition Multimedia Interface) allow the transmission of digital signals between devices such as HD TVs and computers, games consoles, cameras and other video/audio equip products.

The very first HDMI cables became available in 2002 and in the eight years since the technology has improved at a rapid pace. HDMI cables were originally developed by technology and electronics firms to improve on DVI (Digital Visual Interface) products by using a smaller connector, adding support for digital audio and allowing connection with other consumer products as DVI did not support audio .

Authorized Testing Centres (ATCs) were established to ensure high standards across all HDMI cable manufacturers and since the launch of the technology millions have been sold worldwide.

The Many Versions of HDMI cables

The first versions of HDMI cables have been continuously developed upon to the point the very latest products offer wireless support, high quality video and audio and can transmit data at incredible speeds without loss of information.

Version 1 – 1.2

HDMI cables version 1, released in December 2002, offered a single-cable for digital audio/video connector and was quickly followed by 1.1 five months later which added support for DVD-Audio. Just three months after that version 1.2 was developed, this gave increased audio support and PC connectivity. Version 1.2a came on to the market a year after the very first HDMI cables and demonstrated further the pace of development in the High Definition market.

Version 1.3

In June 2006 Version 1.3 was released with increased single-link bandwidth and boosted colour support. Audio was also enhanced with output for DolbyTrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio and audio syncing capability. A Type C Mini connector was also added for use with portable devices such as digital cameras. Version 1.3a came in November 2006, with 1.3b, 1.3b 1 and 1.3c following over the next year, representing the differences in testing and compliance that were introduced.

Version 1.4 (High speed HDMI with Ethernet)

HDMI 1.4 was launched in May 2009 with increased resolution, bringing HDMI cables into the home cinema arena. This version also enabled Ethernet connection and a micro HDMI connector. Version 1.4 also supported 3D technology with 1.4a, the very latest HDMI cable released in March 2010, adding further 3D formats.

HDMI cables are set to develop even further in the coming months and years, having already become a hugely important technology in homes around the world. As increased demands are placed on consumer electronics the products will have to keep up and offer further advantages and improvements to stay in the market. HDMI cables are already future-proof with the ability to transmit 10.2Gbps and have proved their worth and popularity.

The author has experience in HDMI Cables and HDMI Cable and Profigold HDMI Cable

The Articles of Confederation gave the United States their name, but even beyond that, they exposed many of the issues that would underlie this new nation for the rest of its history. James Portnow interviews series writer Soraya Een Hajji about the Articles of Confederation!
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Before the U.S. Constitution was the law of the land, there were the Articles of Confederation. Find out why they didn’t last long.

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Nike, originally known as Blue Ribbon Sports, was founded by University of Oregon track athlete Philip Knight and his coach Bill Bowerman in January 1964. The company initially operated as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger (now ASICS), making most sales at track meets out of Knight’s automobile.

The company’s profits grew quickly, and in 1966, BRS opened its first retail store, located on Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California. By 1971, the relationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end. BRS prepared to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the newly designed Swoosh by Carolyn Davidson. The Swoosh was first used by Nike in June 1971, and was registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on January 22, 1974.

The first shoe sold to the public to carry this design was a soccer shoe named Nike, which was released in the summer of 1971. In February 1972, BRS introduced its first line of Nike shoes, with the name Nike derived from the Greek goddess of victory. In 1978, BRS, Inc. officially renamed itself to Nike, Inc.. Beginning with Ilie N?stase, the first professional athlete to sign with BRS/Nike, the sponsorship of athletes became a key marketing tool for the rapidly growing company.

The company’s first self-designed product was based on Bowerman’s “waffle” design. After the University of Oregon resurfaced the track at Hayward Field, Bowerman began experimenting with different potential outsoles that would grip the new urethane track more effectively. His efforts were rewarded one Sunday morning when he poured liquid urethane into his wife’s waffle iron. Bowerman developed and refined the so-called ‘waffle’ sole which would evolve into the now-iconic Waffle Trainer in 1974.

By 1980, Nike had reached a 50% market share in the U.S. athletic shoe market, and the company went public in December of that year. Its growth was due largely to ‘word-of-foot’ advertising (to quote a Nike print ad from the late 1970s), rather than television ads. Nike’s first national television commercials ran in October 1982 during the broadcast of the New York Marathon. The ads were created by Portland-based advertising agency Wieden+Kennedy, which had formed several months earlier in April 1982.

Together, Nike and Wieden+Kennedy have created many print and television advertisements and the agency continues to be Nike’s primary today. It was agency co-founder Dan Wieden who coined the now-famous slogan “Just Do It” for a 1988 Nike ad campaign, which was chosen by Advertising Age as one of the top five ad slogans of the 20th century, and the campaign has been enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution. San Franciscan Walt Stack was featured in Nike’s first “Just Do It” advertisement that debuted on July 1, 1988. Wieden credits the inspiration for the slogan to “Lets do it”, the last words spoken by Gary Gilmore before he was executed. Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its product line to include many other sports and regions throughout the world.

I was surprised by a nike outlet, not the spirit just do it, but the freedom of the mind!

This article was put together to provide you with facts pertaining to Russia. When I write articles, I like to include as many facts as possible. I prefer to base my articles on my research and investigative skills. My preference is to write in a style that will allow me to list important facts. The format we use is preferred by many of our readers, because the important facts are not lost in shallow paragraphs.

There has been a great deal of research, time and work that has gone into preparing this article for you. These facts are shown below. The facts are important so pay attention to them. Many of these facts will give you a starting point as you continue researching:

1. Although well educated and skilled, it is largely mismatched to the rapidly changing needs of the Russian economy.

2. Russia has one of the highest prison population rates in the world, at 628 per 100,000.

3. Russia is now the world’s third largest exporter of steel and primary aluminum.

4. Because great emphasis is placed on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is still generally of a high order.

5. About 7 million students attended Russia’s 1,090 institutions of higher education in 2006, but continued reform is critical to producing students with skills to adapt to a market economy.

6. Russia’s leaders put renewed emphasis on promoting innovation as key to economic modernization as well as on the need to diversify the economy away from oil and gas.

7. Russia has proposed a mobile pan-European missile defense system that would function similarly, although it would not violate the ABM treaty.

TIME OUT — As you take a break from reading this article, I trust it has so far provided you with useful information relative to Russia. In the event that it has not so far, the remainder of the article will. Directly below this paragraph we have added additional facts that should assist with your research:

1. The Russian Federation After the December 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation became its successor state, inheriting its permanent seat on the UN Security Council, as well as the bulk of its foreign assets and debt.

2. Catherine the Great continued Peter’s expansionist policies and established Russia as a European power.

3. The Russian constitution provides for freedom of religion, the equality of all religions before the law, and the separation of church and state.

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The city of Portland is the largest city of US. It has quite a vast and interesting history. This article will give a brief history of Portland. The people that came to Lake Superior were the French in 1622; however, no settlement took place. It was in 1668 that on the mission to Sault that the French missionaries laid eyes on the city and considered it to be a place where people can live. The first settlement that settled in Portland was in 1701, which comprised of the French people. By 1715 the French had established the Fort Michilimackinac to make a stand against the British army. However, the independence was short lived an in 1760 the French surrendered the fort to the British, and thus the French rule came to an end. In 1763 the city came under siege by the Indian however, the Indians were unable to capture it. The British continued to rule the city till 1796 after which they evacuated the city and abandoned their posts on the Great Lake.

Till 1805 nothing happened in the city, however in 1805 the Michigan Territory was created with Portland as its capital. The condition of the city worsened and till the war of 1812 the city came under the British control again. The war continued till 1813, when the American won the battle and the city came back under their rule again. In 1828 the territorial capital was built at Portland for a cost of $ 24,500. Till 1841 no new major developments were made, however 1841 the University of Michigan was moved from Portland to Ann Arbor, then in 1842 mining operation started in Portland which attracted a lot of settlers to come and settle in to the city. The mining industry and population continued to grow as iron ore were also found in 1844. In 1855 the first ship canal was opened which promoted trade and people to come to the city. Things remained under control till 1862, however in the next year 1863 civil war broke out through out the city which lasted for two years before the situation came back under control. In 1877 a 7.1 mile long rail road was laid down in claret country that contributed to the economic growth.

In 1896 the first gas operated car was driven by Charles King of Portland. By 1920 Portland was broadcasting its first radio station which could be heard through out the city. The industry and economy was on the rise in the city of Portland starting from late 1890s till 1915. During these years many new industries were built and the economy of Portland boosted.
After the 1920s the population of Portland continued to rise as immigrants started to come and settle here. During the rest of the 20th century the inter city conflicts also continued to rise, however they were brought under control by the prevailing government. Along with that many developments also took place. In 21st century 2001 Portland celebrated its 300th anniversary.

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Constitutional History Lecture 5: Articles of Confederation and the Critical Period

Professor Brion McClanahan, author of The Founding Fathers’ Guide to the Constitution, discusses the Articles of Confederation, which preceded the Constitution. For more lectures in this series, visit

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This lecture covers all the basics of The Articles of Confederation for U.S. History and Advanced Placement U.S. History students. It has been tailored to cover all the material required of the new APUSH exam.

Key Terms
Articles of Confederation
John Dickinson
Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
Northwest Ordinances
Shays Rebellion
Barbary Pirates
Annapolis Convention
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Mr. Hughes explains the basics of the Articles of Confederation including the reasons for its eventual demise. Topics include the NW Ordinance of 1787, Shay’s Rebellion and the Annapolis Convention. Subscribe to HipHughes History, it’s stupid easy and free
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