Archive for the ‘Hiv Articles’ Category


From the Saint Martin HIV Reservoirs Workshop to the Vienna International AIDS Society HIV Reservoirs Workshop back to the Saint Martin HIV reservoirs workshop!

HIV Reservoirs Workshop

From 2003 to 2009 we have organized in Saint Martin the Reference Workshop on HIV Reservoirs, HIV Persistence and HIV Eradication Strategies. Every 2 year in December, this HIV workshop has attracted researchers and clinicians from all around the world involved in HIV reservoirs research. Since its beginning, the HIV reservoir workshop principles were to bring together scientists working in different areas, from the fundamental basic science laboratories to the clinical care departments, the so called ‘bench to bedside’ approach. Consequently, only Doctors having submitted an abstract to the HIV reservoir workshop were allowed to sign up.

Towards a Cure IAS HIV Reservoirs Workshop

Mid 2010, we were pleased to participate to the First International AIDS Society (IAS) HIV Reservoirs pre-conference workshop in Vienna. The format was quite the same, although participants of the IAS HIV Reservoirs workshop were on invitation only. There was also a Professional Development Workshop that took place during the IAS World AIDS Conference the following week.IAS involvement in the field of HIV reservoirs is, for us, a proof of the importance of the topic of HIV reservoirs and a recognition of the difficult work we did. Actually, when we launched the First Saint Martin HIV reservoirs workshop in 2003 we felt quite alone (a ‘handful’ of researchers) as agencies and firms were not that much interested by the topic!

HIV Workshop in Saint Martin in December 2011

Research is now moving quickly in the HIV reservoirs field. For about 2 years, HIV cure is no longer a forbidden word and several groups try to get a ‘functional cure’, allowing a drug-free HIV remission.

Consequently, we are eagerly waiting the 5th edition of the HIV Reservoirs Saint Martin workshop in December 2011; once again, we will invest all our energy to make this event the scientific reference on HIV reservoirs.

About us: HIV Persistence and Reservoirs Workshop, Saint Martin, West Indies


About us: Alain Lafeuillade, MD, PhD, on behalf of the HIV Persistence and Reservoirs Workshop,

Are you familiar with the term HIV or AIDS? Do you know what they mean and do you know anything about them? How would you know if you have this disease? After reading this article, then maybe you’ll be able to answer these questions.

Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV for short, is a lentivirus that attacks humans. This lentivirus is characterized by its long incubation period within its host. If you are infected with HIV, you would slowly develop an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or more often called AIDS. AIDS is a condition where your immune system fails to perform its function and role, causing the body to be prone to attack by other diseases and infections that are more lethal than HIV itself.

HIV is a sexually transmitted virus, thus it is transmitted through semen or vaginal fluid during intercourse. But it could also be transmitted through blood transfusion and breast milk ingestion from an infected mother. The HIV could exist in your body fluids that is why it could be transmitted through these manners. Other way of transmitting this virus is by using a needle or piercing that was contaminated by the virus. A mother could also transmit the virus to her newly born baby during birth.

If you are infected with HIV, you would develop AIDS that could lead to severe complications and diseases and ultimately, it can lead to death. The rate of progression from HIV to AIDS differs from person to person, depending on the host’s resistance, the strength of the viral strand, and other environmental factors. HIV infection has been considered a pandemic by the WHO especially in Africa.

According to various sources, there are two kinds of HIV in the world right now: They are HIV-1 and HIV-2. They differ in their activities and properties. HIV-1 was discovered first and it is characterized by being more infectious and more virulent. This means that there is a very high chance of getting infected with HIV-1 when you are exposed to it. HIV-2 on the other hand is less infectious and less virulent. Less people get infected when exposed to HIV-2. Nevertheless, infection with either of the 2 would lead to AIDS. Due the properties of HIV-2, it has been confined to infect people in the West Africa only.

The decrease in the amount of a specific cell that plays a vital role in the immune response of the body is attributed to HIV infection. Decreasing the amount of this cell would decrease the ability of your immune system to perform its function. Decreasing the amount of this cell makes the body very defenseless against opportunistic infections and diseases. And more often than not, these opportunistic infections are more severe and they could be deadly.

The extent of infection could be monitored by either monitoring the amount of this specific cell, or monitoring the amount of HIV in the blood. The infection has 4 stages: incubation, acute infection, latency, and AIDS. The early stages of HIV are often asymptomatic, that is why victims just get surprised that they have reached the last stage.

There is currently no cure for HIV, which is why it is important to avoid the infection of this virus. Early detection is also a must so going to nearby STD clinics is very important as well.

Simple STD Testing
Lesley Curtis


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The concept of life has come across a colossal shift with the emergence of HIV testing in the arena of medicine. It has truly been a big challenge for the medical specialists to find a means to counter this disease. It has till date proved to the disease that has spelled death for any individual who has been affected by it. The treatment for this terminal disease has not yet been discovered. Therefore the only way to stop this death agent is to be careful enough and try and prevent the infection from spreading. The HIV testing acts like a marker that signals the imminent danger in case it has already arrived. The HIV testing does not give the individual the assurance of a fresh lease of life however it does warn the individual regarding the stage of the disease in which it has been detected.

The HIV testing is required to detect whether an individual is HIV positive or not. The different ways by which the HIV virus gets transmitted are as follows:

The first way that an individual may be exposed to the virus is through that of unsafe physical communion.

The second way an individual may be exposed to the virus is that of an infected syringe. This is in fact one of the primary reasons why the syringe once used is immediately disposed off.

The third way could be the transmission from the infected mother to the baby in the womb.

The fourth way could be that of the transfusion of infected blood. It is one of the precise reasons why any blood that has been donated for the purpose of transfusion is checked well to ensure that no such virus is existent in the sample.

The HIV testing is therefore done not only for detection but also for precautionary measures.

The various reasons as to why an individual should opt for HIV testing are as below:

An early detection of the disease enhances the life expectancy of the individual. The modern medications help to delay the imminent end as much as is possible in case of a timely detection.

Since the HIV virus targets the immune system of an individual, therefore an early detection can in the least slow down the pace of the virus if not eliminate the disease completely.

Moreover if an individual is aware of the infection then he or she can at least take the adequate measures to prevent the spread of the disease.

Moreover an early detection can with the aid of required medicine, prevent the disease from being transmitted from the mother to the unborn baby.

Therefore the HIV testing can actually stop the transmission in certain cases if the detection occurs at the right time.

The different ways of HIV testing are namely the enzyme linked immunoassay or the ELISA and the Western Blot test. Once both the HIV testing results turn out to be positive it can be said without a shadow of doubt that the individual has been affected by the virus.

The HIV testing can sometime show a negative result even if the individual has been affected by the virus. The reason of it being so is that the detection depends on the HIV antibody produced by the body. It is therefore advised that one conduct the HIV testing at regular intervals and not become complacent with just one report.

Angel Brown works in forensic department and have sound knowledge in HIV testing. For more information he recommends you to visit


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Further Reading: The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic
HIV Transmission The origin and molecular epidemiology of HIV Env length and N-linked glycosylation following transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 subtype B viruses–central_to_understanding_the_transmission_and_pathogenesis_of_human_immunodeficiency_virus_type_1_infection/links/0fcfd51200b440c2fe000000.pdf The CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors-central to understanding the transmission and pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 20, 111-126 Dimerization inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase: A single mode of inhibition for the three HIV enzymes? A historical reflection on the discovery of human retroviruses HIV-1 Dynamics in Vivo: Virion Clearance Rate, Infected Cell Life-Span, and Viral Generation Time
Precise determination of time to reach viral load set point after acute HIV-1 infection. HIV infection is active and progressive in lymphoid tissue during the clinically latent stage of disease Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis: A Marker for Immune Deterioration and a Predictor for the Diagnosis of AIDS Stages of HIV Infection Opportunistic Infections AIDSinfo Drug Database PrEP Single-dose tenofovir and emtricitabine for reduction of viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs in women given intrapartum nevirapine for perinatal HIV prevention: an open-label randomised trial Dimerization inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase: A single mode of inhibition for the three HIV enzymes? Long-Term Control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 Stem-Cell Transplantation
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The HIV home test kit which can be taken by a person sitting at home, has been debated by politicians, AIDS activists and doctors for a long period. The main apprehension was that a person detecting positive through a HIV home test might be a victim of an inaccurate result and such test might increase the risk of a suicide. However, over the years, these fears have proved unfounded and FDA in 1996 approved two home collection kits for HIV home test. People could do HIV home testing privately and get the results from a certified laboratory as also counseling by calling a toll free telephone number. Observers generally argued in favor of HIV home test which provided increased access, anonymity and privacy. With FDA’s approval, the anonymous HIV home testing was available to all and many purchased the kit. No increase in rate of suicide was reported.

There are certain advantages in conducting HIV home test. A person getting the test done in a clinic may be identified, whereas the HIV home test can be done in complete privacy. The tests can be ordered or bought through internet and is a convenience for disabled persons. The FDA approved tests are accurate and dependable. There are a few disadvantages too. When you order the HIV home test kit either on phone or through internet, your name and address must be given. A close search may reveal your identity. Another problem is that after you dispose off the testing kit, the garbage man may notice it and will know that you have taken a HIV test.

In many cases infections due to Sexually transmitted diseases are detected at a later stage and the body has already been damaged by then and it’s also late for the treatment. If early testing is done with HIV home tests, treatment can be timely done and progress of the disease to non curable state can be halted. It is true that some infections cannot be cured but there onset to lethal stage can be prevented. Late testing may also fail to prevent STD infections from spreading. In the interval between infection and diagnosis infected persons may transmit STD to others. This can be reduced through the early testing by HIV home testing.

An element of doubt remains in the minds of many about urine and saliva being the medium for the spread of HIV and if at all the home testing of these can be recommended? It is true that urine and saliva are very unlikely sources for HIV infection. Urine is not considered to be infected by HIV. Any HIV urine test is therefore unreliable and no conclusion should be drawn from the test.

In many cases STD infections are only discovered when they have progressed to a state which have caused permanent damage to the body and treatment is too late. If you don’t want to be late, it is wise to test earlier. Visit or click on HIV Home Tests for more info!