Archive for the ‘Public Policy Articles’ Category

So today, Craig is finally going to start talking about politics. Now up until this point we’ve specifically been looking at government – that is answering the questions of who, what, and how in relation to policies. But politics is different in that it looks at why certain policies are made. We’re going to start today by looking at public opinion – specifically how the public does (and does not) influence our elected officials.

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10 Things to Know About Unit 8

How to find articles with graphs in them

How to find articles with graphs in them: useful for public policy assignment.
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In the second edition of the Public Policy section of the Manitoba Law Journal, nine articles cover a broad range of public policy issues facing the province of Manitoba. Topics include infrastructure policy, poverty policy, balanced budget legislation, justice policy and labour market policy. At the launch we heard from some of the authors on recent developments in their policy areas and to learn more about the public policy landscape in the province. In this video, Dr. Karine Levasseur (Editor of the Public Policy Section of the Manitoba Law Journal: Underneath the Golden Boy & Associate Professor in Political Studies at the University of Manitoba) discusses the creation of the journal and her article, Continued Instability in Manitoba: Deficits, Taxes, Elections, and Resetting Government.

By bringing together government, practitioners, scholars and members of the community, the Manitoba Institute for Policy Research will further debates and discussion on matters of policy development, administration, and analysis both in Manitoba and across the country.

Currently we are working with the Government of Manitoba, the Federal Government, the United Way of Winnipeg, and other voluntary sector agencies on developing and implementing new outreach, training, and research opportunities.

Understanding Public Policy — A Primer (Daniel T. Griswold)

http://www.cato.org/store/books/mad-about-trade-why-main-street-america-should-embrace-globalization-hardback
http://www.cato.org/cato-university/archives/summer12/schedule.html

Daniel Griswold is the former director of the Herbert A. Stiefel Center for Trade Policy Studies at the Cato Institute in Washington, D.C, and the author of the new Cato book, Mad about Trade: Why Main Street America Should Embrace Globalization. Since joining Cato in 1997, Mr. Griswold has authored major studies on globalization, trade, and immigration. He’s written articles for major newspapers, appeared on CNBC, C-SPAN, CNN, PBS, and Fox News, and testified before House and Senate committees. Earlier in his career, Mr. Griswold was editorial page editor of a daily newspaper, the Colorado Springs Gazette, and a congressional press secretary. He holds a bachelor’s degree in journalism from the University of Wisconsin at Madison and a diploma in economics and a master’s degree in the Politics of the World Economy from the London School of Economics. Since 2012 Griswold has been president of the National Association of Foreign Trade Zones.

The government in each country has certain roles to play towards macro economic development and in this direction the government is responsible in formulating various planning strategies.

The planning by any government involves the below mentioned four stages:
The fixation of the objectives or targets;

An identification of qualitative and quantitative instruments;

The determination of the quantitative values of the chosen instrument which are a function of the targets and constraints and

The formulation of the connection between the constraint set and the relationship that exists between the targets and instruments.

In order to have the plans implemented strictly the governments are formulating various yearly plans and various kinds of instruments are used by the government towards ensuring that the targets specified in the plans are achieved without fail.
The instruments used by the government can be considered in agriculture, industries and foreign trade.

Even though the objectives of planned and unplanned economy are found to differ from one another, the role of the instruments becomes two fold and in a planned economy, they will be used for the purpose of changing the private profitability to coincide with social profitability. Moreover, the development path can be shortened in a planned economy by adopting appropriate policy instruments.

Agriculture:
While in certain countries in respect of agriculture, the private sector dominates agriculture; in other countries, the participation by public sector is found to be more. However, the planned targets of the government with respect of agriculture are sought in order to meet through the use of price and non price instruments. The main constraints operating within agriculture can be termed as institutional, economic and technological.

The main institutional constraints are inequitable distribution of owned land, tenancy and problems of access to market and non market inputs, services and outputs. Tenancy leads to inefficiencies in production and the skewed distribution of land is responsible in resulting in larger farmers dominating agrarian institutions like credit, marketing and input supply channels. In this process, they perpetuate their dominance through what is currently called as the interlocking of markets. The major instruments which are used for reducing inequality in the distribution of owned land have been land reforms with ceilings being put on land owned.

The inefficiencies associated with tenancy are tackled through a shift from crop sharing to fixed rent and/or crop plus cost sharing, abolition of intermediaries, protection against tenancy eviction and controls on the level of rents. The access related problems are alleviated through land reforms and many target group specific programs formulated by the government.

The technological constraint is mainly caused by a lack of adaptive research in biological, chemical and mechanical innovations which are critical in achieving high growth rates in agriculture. This results in a high risk element in introducing new technology in agriculture. Public investment in research, dissemination of new knowledge and training and visits are used in order to relax this constraint.

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Public policy towards monopoly is a subject of discussion that has evolved such that it is now considered to be a highly significant position in the areas that public policy addresses. It is considered to be an imperative dimension of the public policy because of the fact that it is of concern to a multitude of market leaders and giants when their dominance over the market and their role in the market is considered. This paper shall seek to present a discussion on the numerous intricacies of public policy towards monopoly. However, it is essential to develop a sound knowledge of public policy and monopoly individually before they can be analyzed for the numerous cause and effect relationships. This approach shall be followed in an attempt to ensure that the central discussion does not need to present introductory elaborations on concepts at the time of their use but can make use of the elaborations presented in the earlier paragraphs of the paper. By doing so, the paper shall attempt to establish the significant of public policy towards monopoly.

Monopoly

In the days preceding the early 1980s, AT&T held a solid monopoly over American telephone communication. So strong was the monopoly that it was considered nothing less than natural for every phone service to belong to AT&T. The company came to be known as Ma Bell as an expression of its dominance over the country’s telephone based communication services (Flat World Knowledge, 2009). This was because of the fact that not only was the company dominant with regard to local communication but also in the areas of long distance and provincial telephone communication. It was the Justice Department that began to work to break this monopoly around the mid 1980s and this eventually led to the complete annihilation of the AT&T monopoly.

As a result of the breaking up of AT&T’s monopolistic hold, AT&T lost its dominance over local telephone communication and remained prevailing in only long range telephone communication services. However, it lost its reign over long range communication services as well when technology began to compel AT&T users to opt for cheaper and more technologically viable and sophisticated options (Flat World Knowledge, 2009). Innovations such as the introduction of cable television and allowed for the development of regional markets with each market harboring its own competitive players.

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