Archive for the ‘Stem Cell Articles’ Category

How do cells in your body differentiate into other types of cells? Explore cell specialization featuring stem cells and their role in cell differentiation. For examples on types of specialized cells, see our “Specialized Cells” video here: https://youtu.be/wNe6RuK0FfA.

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More detailed information about terms “multipotent” and “pluripotent” as well as stem cell therapy? Check out this excellent article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4104807/

This video mentions the amazing ability of induced pluripotent stem cells. Here is an article describing this technology in great detail: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782070/

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If you’ve always wondered about how bone marrow creates adult stem cells, then this is the article for you. We’ll look at the bone structure, the bone marrow and finally how adult stem cells are released. By the end, you’ll have a great understanding of just what happens with adult stem cells and our bone marrow.

First, let’s look at the bone structure. Many people believe the bones have very little blood circulation, but this is incorrect. There is voluminous blood flow and our bones contain both compact and spongy structure. The compact bone gives strength, while the spongy bone contains the marrow.

Next, let’s look at the bone marrow itself. Ask anyone what color bone marrow is and they’ll most likely say yellow. This is not completely true. Children have only red bone marrow, it’s only as we age that the red marrow is displaced by fat storing yellow marrow. Adults still have red marrow in the ribs, vertebrae, pelvis and skull. This red marrow is where our adult stem cells are located and as we get less red marrow as we age, this explains the drop in stem cell production. It is estimated however, that our bone marrow contains around 150 million adult stem cells.

Finally, let’s look at how bone marrow stem cells are released. Generally speaking in the body, cells divide through symmetrical division whereby a cell creates 2 identical cells which contain the original DNA. With the bone marrow however, asymmetrical division occurs. This is where a cell creates 2 different cells — 1 with copies of the DNA and the other with the original DNA. The copied DNA stem cell leaves the bone marrow, while the original DNA stem cell remains behind. This process is known as immortal strand hypothesis and ensures the number of adult stem cells always remains constant in the bone marrow.

So there you have it, a short guide explaining how the bone marrow creates adult stem cells. We’ve looked at bone structure, the bone marrow and finally how adult stem cells are released from the bone marrow. The most important things to remember are that this process is natural but is reduced with age and that supporting the release of adult stem cells from the bone marrow will not reduce their numbers.

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Stem cells are found in all multi-cellular organisms. Basically two types of stem cells are found: These are the pluripotent and multipotent. Stem cell growth, in general, depending on their prototype has the capability to generate different types of cells in the body. And the growth of these cell stems may function like a natural replenishing system for the body promoting repair and nurturing other cells during the rest of life span.

 

When a stem cell gets divided, each of the new cells is termed as the daughter cell and in course of time each of the daughter cells becomes either a stem cell or turn into other specific type of cells with specific function. For example, brain cell, red blood cell or a muscle cell.

 

The discovery of stem cells and their growth potential has unveiled its scope in multiple areas of health and medical research. The study of the stem cells has revealed the mystery of the creation of the specialized cells out of these mother cells. The analysis of this cell division process on the other hand have been able to explain our inherent cell division process, its pattern, and correlated contribution of cell division in our development and over-all growth of the body.

 

The insight on the growth potential of stem cells has opened a new avenue for medical treatments. Doctors collect highly plastic adult stem cells from different sources such as the umbilical cord blood, bone marrow and such for different medical therapies. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells can be regenerated through therapeutic cloning process and the possibility of these generating processes is expected to unhinge new possibilities of medical treatments and repair processes.

 

Stem cells are now counted as a potential resource for multiple medical benefits. The stem cells have also opened a new possibility for recovery in the area of medical organ transplantation. For instance, donated organs and tissues are often used to replace the diseased and destroyed organs. But there are several instances where the unavailability of fresh organs makes the transplant uncertain and complicated.  According to researchers, meticulous use of the Pluripotent stem cells can solve this kind of situational intricacy by regeneration of new tissues and cells. This transplantation can treat countless incurable diseases like the injuries to the spinal cord, heart diseases, arthritis, diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and many more.

 

It is expected that while working on and analyzing the stem cell growth closely, scientists in near future, may be able to replace damaged organs or consider the addition of new genes to the stem cells. These may prove to be beneficial to implant necessary immunity power required for the treatment of a disease by developing the auto immune power of the patient.

 

Article by Jenny at Inter-Dev SEO Company on behalf of Drug delivery systems

Stem cell treatment and research towards curing illness–from multiple sclerosis to spinal injury–is detailed by Dr. Neil Riordan. The American medical industry, obstructions to research in the states, misconceptions about stem cells, and the details about the treatment process are explained–and we look at video of patient recovery and speculate at what the future could spell for stem cell treatment and research in this Lip News interview, hosted by Elliot Hill.

GUEST BIO:
Dr. Neil Riordan is the founder and Chairman of Medistem Panama, a leading stem cell laboratory and research facility – located in Panama City. His institute is at the forefront of research of the effects of adult stem cells on the course of several chronic diseases. Dr. Riordan has more than 60 scientific articles in international peer-reviewed journals. In the stem cell arena, he and his colleagues have published more than 20 articles on Multiple Sclerosis, Spinal Cord Injury, Heart Failure, Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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EPISODE BREAKDOWN:
00:01 Welcome to The Lip News Interviews.
00:05 Introducing Dr. Neil Riordan, Founder and chairman of Medistem Panama.
00:55 The unique properties of stem cells.
05:15 Unique applications of stem cells.
06:40 Video of stem cell patient with Multiple Sclerosis.
09:30 What is the treatment process like?
10:50 Disputing skepticism surrounding stem cell treatment.
12:25 Are some patients slow to respond or non responsive to stem cell treatment?
14:15 Roadblocks encountered in the United States.
16:30 Desire for profit slowing the advancement of healthcare.
18:05 Video of stem cell patient recovering from spinal injury.
20:45 The future of stem cell research and treatment for Medistem Panama.
21:45 Thank you and goodbye

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/29/platelet-stem-cell-therapy.aspx?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=video&utm_campaign=content_interview Natural health expert and Mercola.com founder Dr. Joseph Mercola interviews James Leiber, a D.O., about a number of different stem cell products and techniques he uses in his practice.
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Our body’s tissue is subject to a continuous regeneration process. The ability of adult stem cells to self-renew and to generate fast proliferating progenitor cells is an absolute prerequisite for tissue regeneration. Because the skin is an exceptionally highly regenerative tissue, the skin stem cell population represents the most important target for anti-ageing treatments. But, regardless of the regenerative power of stem cells, our skin loses its elasticity and firmness and forms wrinkles as we age. The regenerative potential of the stem cells apparently does not last forever; they too age. Ingredients, specifically designed to delay the depletion of their regeneration capacity, are a most promising solution to keeping skin looking youthful longer.

We are in need of novel in vitro models to test stem cell claims
Meanwhile a lot of research is being done on the mechanism of epidermal regeneration by stem cells embedded in specific niches located at the basal layer of the epidermis. In vitro test systems using epidermal stem cells have been established which allow claims for epidermal stem cell actives. Also dermal stem cells could be targeted by cosmetic ingredients. Fibroblasts, the prominent cell type in the dermis, are responsible for the continuous production of collagen and elastin. These proteins form the so called extracellular matrix, a three dimensional structure that confer elasticity and firmness to the skin. Age-related reduction in the formation of the extracellular matrix and environmental stress factors that lead to the breakdown of the existing matrix are key elements in the skin ageing process and directly involved in wrinkle formation. Controlling the regenerative potential of dermal stem cells would make it possible to correct loss of skin firmness and elasticity and to prevent wrinkles.

A novel cell culture assay to address dermal stem cell activity
Details of the dermal stem cell niche and marker expression remained scarce. But recently, a research group at the University of Toronto showed that the dermal papilla is a niche for dermal progenitor/stem cells. These cells were found to self-renew, to induce the formation of hair follicles and to migrate into the inter-follicular dermis where they proliferated and differentiated to fibroblast cells, able to regenerate the extracellular matrix. Other characteristics of these cells were the expression of a specific marker gene Sox2 and the tendency to grow in colonies in the form of spheres. Mibelle Biochemistry is now working on a human dermal papilla cell line as a new test system for the evaluation of active ingredients for stem cell vitalization potential. The established cell line was found to effectively form sphere-like colonies and the cells in those spheres were found to be uniformly Sox2-labelled, thus representing real dermal stem cells.

Working with human dermal stem cells
Progenitor cells isolated from the dermal papilla of excised human hair follicles could be maintained as a monolayer culture for at least 11 passages. At both passage 3 and passage 11 cells transferred into hanging drops formed 3D spheres, demonstrating that this important characteristic of progenitor cells was retained even after longer-term cultivation. In addition, immunofluorescent labelling of whole mount spheres showed positive staining for the Sox2, a proposed dermal stem cell marker. When cells dissociated from primary spheres were seeded back into classical cell culture dishes used for routine monolayer culture, numerous secondary spheres were formed. This indicates that once cells have formed primary spheres, they seem to retain a memory of the 3D progenitor phenotype, and preferentially re-form spheres where normally monolayer cultures would be expected to form.

Conclusion
A stable culture of progenitor cells isolated from the dermal papilla could be established. Even after 11 passages, cells retained the ability to both form 3D spheres and express the stem cell marker Sox2, suggesting a stem cell phenotype. Using this culture we can now effectively evaluate the influence of cosmetic actives on dermal stem cells. A variety of evaluations may be made, including both molecular (i.e. stem cell marker expression) and phenotypic (i.e. number of spheres, proportion of complete spheres, serial passaging of 3D spheres etc). This approach will provide us with detailed insights into the behaviour and activity of dermal stem cells in the presence of cosmetic actives, thus enabling the evaluation of their ability to maintain or restore their regenerative potential in the dermis. Protection and vitalization of human dermal stem cells is the next generation of stem cell cosmetics. Active ingredients with these properties offer a deep-seated rejuvenation of the skin, resulting in restoration of firmness and wrinkle reduction. In addition, such products could also be beneficial in wound healing and the treatment of stretch marks.