Archive for the ‘Weaknesses Of The Articles Of Confederation’ Category

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Al Qaeda has three essential weaknesses; internal contradictions, utopian vision, futile strategy and tactics.

Internal Contradictions

However powerful cults can be, they are, nevertheless, not invincible. At a certain point, they tend to splinter and/or self-destruct. All cults, including Al Qaeda have two essential weaknesses. They are based on a lie, the contradictions of which eventually become untenable and, then, turn into an internal cancer causing its cells to turn upon one another and destroy themselves. Secondly, the larger they grow and the stronger they appear to become, they simultaneously loose their inner cohesion and become open to internal disputes, schisms and external influence and infiltration.

There is also a tendency that, once one group has denounced the established authority in a certain way, be it a Church or political dogma and/or socio-economic system, then they have also opened the field for other groups to emerge internally or externally, which can also claim that they are, in fact, the real “True Path” and “Only Way.” They then acuse the original group of being charlatans an traitors. This then multiplies and cults disintegrate into thousands of competing mini-cults, each more interested in fighting and denouncing the other, than concentrating on the original enemy or cause.

Secondly, and related to this, there is only room for one « Führer », for one living Guru or “Living God.” By virtue of the fact that its leaders are all sociopathic individuals, at some point, internal frictions must always lead to a split in the core leadership. A bloody reckoning follows leaving one faction victorious. In some instances, even more ferocious groups will emerge from factionalism, each vying with one another and aiming to out do the other(s) in their fanaticism as proof of their credentials as pretenders to the mystical throne. But as with all things they cannot live forever. Cults thrive only so long as the right social, political and economic conditions exist for the bacteria to keep breeding. Once external conditions change and they no longer find a host to feed upon, they must turn inwards and eat themselves alive.

Visionary myopia, utopian blindness.

The simultaneous strength and weakness of all cults is their supra-historical vision. It gives mission, which conveys extraordinary power to their members’ motivation, sacrifice and martyrdom. Yet at the same time, that vision is always a totally erroneous and preposterous view of reality. It usually centers around prophesies of doom, with salvation only for the righteous believers and torturous death and retribution for infidels and heretics. Even when these fairy tales have some tenuous basis in real relations and situations, they remain, at best, only a highly warped and deformed view of the way things really are. Living on the edge of or out of reality is not a sound base for any organization, because ultimately it must crash against the contradictions. It leads to unsound evaluations, incorrect decisions and inevitable strategic and tactical mistakes at some stage. From the point of view of Al Qaeda, the classical example was its participation in the hopeless “utopian nightmare” of Afghan Taliban society and, then its attack of 9/11, which combined temporarily to invite an aggression, which severely curtailed and weakened its command structure and nearly led to its demise. Al Qaeda was only saved partly by chance and partly by ineptitude on the part of Washington and US intelligence.

Al Qaeda’s vision of vanquishing the Crusaders and Zionists as the conduit of Allah on Earth is an unattainable fairy story. Apart from some political goals such as the removal of all Western military and economic interests in the Middle East its mission is vague and nebulous. Any apparent gains it may score will largely be due to the ineptitude of the US but its Fatwah against the

Stephen J. Morgan is a former member of the British Labour Party Executive Committee, a political writer and accredited Emotional Intelligence Coach. His first book was the “The Mind of a Terrorist Fundamentalist – the Cult of Al Qaeda.” He has lived and worked in more than 27 different countries and including crisis situations in Northern Ireland and Yugoslavia. He a journalist/columist for the magazine. He is currently writing a book on the Bush Administration. He is a political psychologist, researcher into Chaos/Complexity Theory and lives in Brussels (Old Europe) Contact

Three Systems of Government

The American people have had three systems of central government since 1775. The first was the wartime Continental Congress, appointed by the thirteen individual colonies, governing the general affairs of the Union for six years.

The second began in 1781 shortly before fighting ended. The Continental Congress governed under the Articles of Confederation, the first written constitution of this nation. And the third is the Constitution that this nation is governed by today, the Constitution of 1787, put into effect 1789.

Continental Congress

The Continental Congress drew its power from two things, the united determination of the people and the Congressional power to print money and make treaties. The paper money carried a pledge that it would be redeemed in gold or silver. With Congress unable and the states unwilling to levy taxes, Continental currency began to slide down hill, prices soared, more money was printed and inflation swept the nation. In late 1789, Congress quit printing money and called on the states to pay for the war. That did not solve the financial problems, but it did end Congress as a powerful governing body.

Before the money presses were shut down, James Madison wrote, “Congress had the whole wealth and resources of the continent within its command and could do as it pleased, but when the power was given up, it has become as dependent on the states as the King of England is on the Parliament”.

Articles of Confederation

Meanwhile, the Articles of Confederation were before the state legislatures for ratification. This new form of government had three weaknesses. The most serious was the absence of taxing power, leaving Congress completely dependent on the states, coupled with this was the inability of Congress to regulate commerce. The second defect was the voting procedure by which things were passed into law by the states, which paralyzed Congress. And third was a declaration that each state retained every power not expressly delegated to the Confederation. James Madison and others tried to wipe out these defects unsuccessfully, thus leaving a weak central government through the Articles of Confederation.

Framing The Constitution

The Articles of Confederation brought so much confusion and strife that if something was not done to form a stable government, this nation would most likely be broken into pieces. Thus a handful of men led by Hamilton and Madison pressed Congress to form a constitutional convention to revise the federal government. So the framers of our present Constitution gathered in Philadelphia in 1787, and for three months, worked in utter secrecy. Then their work was submitted to the state conventions for ratification. Much effort was put forth by men such as James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, in writing the Federalist Papers. In Virginia, James Madison won a timely debate with Patrick Henry to help ratify the Constitution.

All men wanted a strong government for America, but wanted no tyranny of any sort, so the government was divided into three branches. They separated the executive from the legislative branch and form them they set a strong and independent judiciary. The framers desired to protect property and they trusted the federal government, leaving it free, later adding the Bill of Rights to protect individual and property rights from government interference.

It was James Madison who put a solid foundation under democratic self-government. He said, “The abuses of democracy were at their worst in small republics (states). The only remedy was to enlarge the sphere of government that would divide the community into so great a number of interests and parties that it would be difficult to organize a majority for the oppression of the minority. State governments, being inclined to oppress minorities, must be held in check by federal authority and the federal authorities held in check by different branches of government.” His view was accepted and is built upon to this day. James Madison truly is the Philosopher of the Constitution.

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Weakness of the Articles of Confederation: An Overview

Weakness of the Articles of Confederation: An Overview
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A high-quality rotary trimmer is a great cutting tool to have around and one of the best is the Dahle 552. Here are its strengths and weaknesses for you to check out if you’ve been looking for a good rolling trimmer.


Rolling trimmers can sometimes be capable of only trimming a few sheets of paper at a time. However, that’s not the case with the 552. This device can train as many as 20 sheets at once, so it’s a good choice if you need something with a decent cutting capacity.
The 552 is also great to use if you need to work with big pieces of paper. It has a 20-1/8” cutting length so you’ll be able to trim both large and small items. This is an especially good length if you’re working with banners, posters, and so on.
This trimmer has a blade that’s able to cut no matter which direction it’s going in. The blade is made from ground steel and it can sharpen itself so you don’t need to change blades even after a lot of use. Also, the blade enclosed in plastic casing so your fingers won’t get too close to it. This helps prevent injuries.
You can work with both sheets and rolls of paper with this device. If you choose to use rolls, there’s an optional roll holder that attaches to this trimmer.
The 552’s base is made out of metal so you don’t have to worry about it warping or becoming cracked, unlike wood. The base has an alignment grid with both metric and standard measurements. Your documents will stay in place when you cut them thanks to the trimmer’s automatic paper clamp.
If you want to keep this trimmer out of the way, you can have it mounted on the wall. This will help keep your work surfaces free for other items, especially since this is a pretty large device. (More on size in a moment.)
Finally, this product comes with a limited lifetime warranty for your peace of mind.


The 552 has a good cutting capacity, but it may not be sufficient for large projects. If you frequently need to cut a lot of paper at once, you might want to consider getting a stack cutter instead. (Dahle makes several you can choose from.)
This trimmer measures 27-3/4” x 14-18/” so it’s pretty large. Unfortunately, it doesn’t come with a floor stand like the Dahle 556 and 558 cutters, so make sure you have enough room for it or you’re comfortable with hanging it on a wall.
Finally, the 552 is a very bright blue color that may not appeal to some people.

Conclusion: The Dahle 552 has many more strengths than weaknesses, making it a good choice for just about anybody. It has a good cutting capacity, can process larger pieces of paper, and is made out of high-quality materials. This trimmer is also safe to use and it can be mounted on a wall for convenience. So unless its size and color are off-putting, you’ll want to check out the 552 today.

If you’d like to purchase the Dahle 552, you should really visit They have this product available at a great price and they also have a wide selection of other Paper Handling Equipment. Plus, you’ll get free shipping on all orders over $ 75.00.