Archive for the ‘Write A Note On Articles With Example’ Category

There is no doubt that articles are adjectivessince they modify the nouns after them. But articles have some special significance as determiners.  Articles determine the standard of nouns.
There are two types of articles:
Definite Article –  the
The makes the noun something particular and definite.
Example:
Give me the ball.
(Here, the speaker is telling someone to give him/her a particular ball about which the speaker and the listener both are aware. There is no possibility of the ball to be anything else rather than the speaker and the listener idea of that particular ball.)
Indefinite Article –  a & an
A & an – make the noun something general and indefinite.
Example:
Give me a ball.
(Here, the speaker is telling someone to give him/her a random ball about which the listener is not particularly aware of, and s/he might ask ‘which/what kind of ball you want?’.)
Give me an egg. (It can be any kind of egg – the possibility is open.)
Definite article or Indefinite article, each of the articles has different uses in different situations.
Using Indefinite Article: a & an
Rule 1:
A common noun in the singular number always requires an article before it. But a plural common noun does not require an article always. A plural common noun can have the article ‘the’ if we want to particularise that noun.
Example:
I saw a snake. (Refers to a random snake)
I saw snakes in a zoo. (No article is required)
I have seen the snake again. (Refers to the snake I have already seen earlier)
I have seen the snakes again before leaving the zoo. (Refers to the particular snakes of the zoo which I saw earlier.)
Rule 2:
The choice between the two indefinite articles – a & an – is determined by sound. Words beginning with consonant sounds precede ‘a’ and words beginning with vowel sounds precede ‘an’. There are some special cases also. For instance,
a university, a union, a useful book, etc.
a one-dollar note, a one-man army, etc.
an MA, a BA, an LLB, a BSC, etc.
Rule 3:
A or an – sometimes makes a Proper Noun a Common Noun. Proper nouns generally do not take any articles, but when a proper noun needs to be used as a common noun, you must bring a or an – for it.  
Example: 
He thinks he is a Shakespeare. (Here, ‘Shakespeare’ does not refer to the actual person but someone like him.)
He seems to be an Australian. (‘Australia’ is a proper noun but ‘Australian’ is a common noun because there is only one Australia but a million of Australians.)
Rule 4:
Sometimes indefinite articles are used to refer the number ‘one’/’each’/’per’.
Example:
I earned a thousand dollar in that job. (One thousand dollar)
I have a car. (One car)
It goes 50 miles an hour. (Per Hour)
Rule 5:
Indefinite articles often precede descriptive adjectives.
Example:
He is a good boy.
What a nice car!
Rule 6:
‘A’ sometimes comes before determiners, for example,  a few, a little, a lot of, a most, etc. but in the case of many, a or an – comes after.
Example:
I have a few friends coming over.
There is a little milk in the jar.
Many a fan welcomed
Using Definite Article: the
Rule 1:
‘The’ is used to indicate a particular person(s) or thing(s) in the case of common nouns. Proper nouns generally do not take an article.
Example:
The man is running. (A particular man)
I saw the boy stealing.
Where is the pen I gave you last year?
I gave him a ball, but he lost the ball. (‘a ball’ became ‘the ball’ in the second clause because that ball was not a random ball anymore.)
Rule 2:
Sometimes ‘the’ is used to generalize a group/whole class.
Example:
The dog is a faithful animal. (Refers to the whole species of dog.)
The English are industrious. (Refers to the people of England

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English 6th standard. Term 1

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Joyce Carol Oates has been recognized as a literary treasure for more than 50 years. Her work has been honored with many distinguished awards, including the National Book Award for her novel “them.” She’s also won two O. Henry Awards, the National Humanities Medal, and the Jerusalem Prize.

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Learn PUNCTUATION Easily in 30 Minutes in this Punctuation Masterclass. Also see – MOST COMMON MISTAKES IN ENGLISH & HOW TO AVOID THEM: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Dax90QyXgI&list=PLmwr9polMHwsR35rD9spEhjFUFa7QblF9

***** RELATED LESSONS *****
1. HAVE BEEN / HAS BEEN / HAD BEEN: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhSqfzaMuLM&list=PLmwr9polMHwsR35rD9spEhjFUFa7QblF9
2. Correct Use of COULD and WOULD: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mU9lY1HF5Mc&index=4&list=PLmwr9polMHwsR35rD9spEhjFUFa7QblF9
3. All GRAMMAR lessons: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLmwr9polMHwsR35rD9spEhjFUFa7QblF9
4. How to Become Fluent in English: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLmwr9polMHwsI6vWZkm3W_VE7cWtYVjix

In this lesson, you will learn the rules for using:
– period/full stop (.)
– exclamation mark (!)
– question mark (?)
– comma (,)
– semicolon (;)
– colon (:)
– apostrophe (‘)

Partial transcript:
Hello, and welcome back. In this lesson, I’m going to teach you the rules for using the seven most important punctuation marks, so that you can write correct English without making mistakes. There are exercises within the lesson to help you practice, and as always there is a final quiz at the end of the video. So, if you’re ready, let’s begin. We’re going to start with terminal punctuation. ‘Terminal’ means the end, so terminal punctuation marks are what we use to end a sentence. There are three of these: the period or the full stop, the exclamation mark, and the question mark. Let’s look at the period first. This mark is called the period in American English (AmE means American English), and it’s called the full stop in British English. It is used to mark the end of declarative and imperative sentences. I’ll explain. Here are some examples: “I teach English.” “We had pizza for dinner last night.” “If it rains tomorrow, I’ll bring my umbrella.” These sentences are called declarative sentences because they declare something; they give us some information. And at the end of each sentence, you see a period or full stop. Imperative sentences are commands or requests: “Please don’t feed the animals.” You might see this on a sign in a zoo. “Let me know what time your flight arrives.” “If it rains tomorrow, bring your umbrella.” Let’s now turn to the exclamation mark. It is used to convey strong emotion or feeling. Have a look at these two sentences: Both of them mean the same thing. The first sentence, which ends in a period, has no special feeling or emotion; it’s like saying “I’m really excited about my new job.” Doesn’t sound like I’m very excited, does it? That’s why we use the exclamation mark: “I’m really excited about my new job!” – it tells our reader to read the sentence with emotion – in this sentence, the emotion is excitement. This next sentence: “If you come to work late tomorrow, you’re fired!” Imagine a manger saying this to an employee. So, this expresses anger. In the same way, you can show many other feelings including surprise, joy, fear etc. using the exclamation mark. Now, both of these sentences are declarative, but you can also use the exclamation mark in an imperative sentence like this one: “Johnny, don’t play with your food!” You can imagine a mother saying that angrily to her son. So, it’s a strong or strict command. Another place where we use the exclamation mark is after interjections. Here are a couple of sentences: “Ouch! You just stepped on my foot!” “Wow! What a beautiful house!” Interjections are words like “ouch” and “wow” which are used to express feelings. So, remember: if you want to convey strong emotion in a sentence, put an exclamation mark at the end of it. If there’s no special feeling, just end the sentence with a period. OK, let’s turn now to the third terminal punctuation symbol: the question mark. It is used to mark the end of a question. So, it’s very straightforward: if a sentence is a question, then put a question mark at the end of it. Here are some examples: “What do you do?” “Are we allowed to feed the animals?” “If it rains tomorrow, should I bring my umbrella?” “Are you excited about your new job?” “Who lives in that house?” So, the rule is: if a sentence is a question, it must end with a question mark. Alright, let’s do a small exercise now. There are four sentences on the screen. I want you to add periods or full stops, exclamation marks and question marks where necessary. Stop the video, think about your answers, then play the video and check. OK, here are the answers. If you want, stop the video again, check your answers, then play the video and continue. Before we move on to the next topic, a quick note on spacing. Notice that there is no space between the last letter of a sentence and the terminal punctuation mark. If you put a space there, it’s wrong. But, when you begin a new sentence, you should leave a space after the terminal mark, and you should start the new sentence with a capital letter.
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Many non-native speakers have problems with articles, in many languages they don’t even exist. But in English articles are very important, sometimes they might completely change the meaning of sentences. Today we’re going to look at several cases where articles make a huge difference.
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The first pilot to my Essay Tips series! I share my method for reading and understanding a journal article or paper quickly and efficiently including how to take good, concise notes and remember useful citations.

If your method differs from mine or you think you can give me some pointers then let me know in the comments!

This is the first in a series of videos I’m hoping to produce while undertaking my PhD at the University of Exeter on tips for students at university or college whether undergraduate, postgraduate or otherwise.

Note: The programme to the left (which I highlight in) is Mendeley. Apologies for forgetting to state this in the video!!

If you’ve enjoyed this video then please do check out the rest of my channel. I generally put out new videos every Tuesday and Friday discussing theatre and playwriting from the perspective of an aspirant and (some might say) emerging playwright, theatre maker and academic.

My tagging system was borrowed from this article on The Thesis Whisperer: https://thesiswhisperer.com/2015/10/28/how-evernote-can-help-you-with-your-literature-review/

Further Reading

The Academic Skills Handbook by Diana Hopkins and Tom Reid
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UK: https://amzn.to/2NBJIfb

The Study Skills Handbook by Stella Cottrell
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UK: https://amzn.to/2OTyneu

[The above are affiliate links. I receive a small kickback from anything you buy which, in turn, helps to support the channel.]
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In this lesson, learn the 7 rules for using articles in English correctly. Also see – MOST COMMON MISTAKES IN ENGLISH & HOW TO AVOID THEM: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Dax90QyXgI&list=PLmwr9polMHwsR35rD9spEhjFUFa7QblF9

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Transcript:
Hello and welcome. In this
lesson, I will teach you the
seven rules that you need to
know for using articles in
English correctly. Articles are
the words ‘a’, ‘an’, and ‘the’.
There is a final quiz at the
end of the lesson for you to
test your understanding.
OK, the first rule is about
where to use ‘a’ and where to
use ‘an’. So rule number one is
use ‘a’ before a consonant
sound, and ‘an’ before a vowel
sound.
So in all of these words – you
see that they start with a
consonant sound. Cat starts
with /k/, dog
starts with /d/, boy with /b/,
girl with /g/, house with /h/
and tree with /t/.
So we say ‘a cat’, ‘a dog’, ‘a
boy’, ‘a girl’, ‘a house’, ‘a
tree’ etc. Notice that in
natural speech, we don’t say
‘a’, we say ‘uh’ – like ‘a
cat’.
In this next set of words, you
see that, they all start with a
vowel sound – apple starts with
/ae/, engineer starts with /e/,
ice-cream with /ai/, old with
/o/, umbrella with /uh/.
So we say ‘an apple’, ‘an
engineer’, ‘an ice-cream cone’,
‘an old womman’, ‘an umbrella’
and so on. In speech, we don’t
say ‘an’, we say /ən/.
Let’s do a small exercise. You
see ten items on the screen.
For each one, I want you to say
if you would use ‘a’ or ‘an’
before it. Stop the video,
think about it, then play the
video again and check.
OK here are the answers. Did
you get them all right? I want
to focus on items number seven
to ten because these are a
little tricky. Number seven is
‘a university’ because even
though ‘university’ starts with
the letter ‘u’ the first sound
of the word is not a vowel
sound. We don’t say
/ooniversity/. We say /yoo-nə-
vər-si-ty/ so that first sound
is a /y/ sound, which a
consonant sound, so we say ‘a
university.’
Number eight is similar. The
word ‘European’ starts with a
/y/ sound, so ‘a European
tour.’
In number nine, the spelling
has an ‘h’ at the start but
that ‘h’ is silent. We don’t
say /hau-ər/, we say /au-ər/.
The first sound is an /au/
sound which is a vowel sound,
so this is ‘an hour’. In the
same way, in number ten, we say
MA. ‘M’ starts with an /e/
sound which is again a vowel
sound, so ‘an MA in English’.
OK let’s move on to rule number
two: Use ‘a’ and ‘an’ ONLY with
singular, countable nouns.
We say that a noun is countable
if we can count it – one, two,
three, four etc.
All of these words on the
screen are countable. We can
say one elephant, three cars,
ten teachers, five hundred
onions and so on. Now if you
talk about one person or thing,
like one elephant or one
car, then that’s called a
singular noun and if you say
ten teachers or five hundred
onions, those are called plural
nouns.
Uncountable nouns cannot be
counted in this way. Nouns like
water, sugar, milk, love,
anger, knowledge are some
examples. If you think about
it, you cannot say “I drank
four waters” or “I want eight
milks”. To a person, you can
say “I love you” but you can’t
say “I have five loves for you”
– that doesn’t make any sense.
So these are all uncountable.
Alright, so the rule is – you
can only use ‘a’ and ‘an’ if
you’re talking about one person
or one thing.
Let’s do another quick
exercise. Here are ten items
again. This time, you see ‘a’
or ‘an’ before the nouns, but
some of these are wrong. They
should NOT have ‘a’ or ‘an’
before them. Stop the video,
identify the mistakes, then
play the video again and check.
OK, here are the answers.
Number three is wrong because
‘shirts’ is a plural and you
cannot use ‘a’ or ‘an’ before a
plural noun. Number five is
wrong because ‘happiness’ is
uncountable, so again, ‘a’ or
‘an’ cannot be used there. The
same goes for number six –
water is uncountable. Number
nine is wrong because ‘doctors’
is a plural – you can say ‘a
doctor’ but not ‘a doctors’.
And finally, in number ten,
advice is an uncountable noun –
so you cannot ask for ‘an
advice’.
Now a quick note here: the
article ‘the’ can be used with
all kinds of nouns – singular
or plural countable nouns, and
uncountable nouns.
OK, so let’s now talk about how
to choose between ‘a’ or ‘an’
and ‘the’.
Here’s rule number three: Use
‘a’ or ‘an’ to talk about a
person or thing unknown to your
listener. And use ‘the’ to talk
about a person or thing known
to your listener.
For example, “My sister has two
computers: a PC and a laptop.
The PC is quite old but the
laptop is brand new.” I say ‘a
PC’ and ‘a laptop’ because
that’s the first time I’m
mentioning the two computers.
That is, until this point, they
are unknown to you, the
listener.