In the night sky, the expanses of space between the stars of the Milky Way appear to be empty. In fact this space is occupied by a very thin gas that is mostly hydrogen and that has mere traces (less than 0.1% by number of atoms) of other elements such as oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. The gas is also dusty; it contains grains of dust (particulate matter) that, like an interstellar fog, impede one’s view of the stars. This gas is not evenly spread in space, but is clumpy. Although on average there is approximately one hydrogen atom for every cubic centimeter of interstellar space, a clump may be one thousand or more times as dense as a comparable volume of average density. Since about 1970 astronomers have been finding that these denser regions contain a great variety of molecules; about 120 different molecular species have been identified in the interstellar medium. The study of these molecules in the Milky Way and in other galaxies is called astrochemistry.

Astronomers identify interstellar atoms and molecules via spectroscopy . For example, interstellar sodium atoms that happen to be in a line of sight going from a point on Earth’s surface toward a bright star absorb light emitted by that star at a wavelength that is characteristic of sodium atoms (about 589 nanometers; 2.3×10−5 inches). Most interstellar molecules are detected by spectroscopic analysis that measures absorption or emission at radio wavelengths rather than those corresponding to visual light. Astronomers use large radio telescopes to detect radiation emitted by interstellar molecules. These emissions arise because the molecules are set to rotating when they collide with each other. The molecules lose energy and slow down in their rotations by emitting radiation at wavelengths that are specific for them, such that each emission is a “signature” of one type of molecule. For example, the molecule carbon monoxide, CO, may emit at various radio wavelengths, including 2.6 millimeters (0.1 inches), 1.3 millimeters (0.05 inches),0.65 millimeters (0.03 inches), and 0.32 millimeters (0.01 inches). Interstellar gas is usually very cold (around 10 degrees above absolute zero), but even under these conditions the molecular collisions are energetic enough to keep the molecules rotating and, therefore, emitting radiation. About 120 types of molecules have been identified in the space between the stars in our galaxy.

Sometimes these interstellar molecules may be located in warmer regions. If the gas of which they are a part is close to a star, or becomes heated because one clump collides with another, the temperature of the molecules may rise considerably, perhaps to several thousand degrees above absolute zero. In these cases, the collisions between gas molecules are correspondingly more energetic, and molecules may be set to vibrating as well as rotating. For example, a carbon monoxide molecule, CO, vibrates to-and-fro as if the two atoms are connected by a coiled spring. A vibrating molecule also eventually slows down and loses energy (unless it is involved in further collisions) by emitting radiation that is again specific to that particular molecule. In the example of CO, that radiation has a wavelength of about 4.7 micrometers (18.5 × 10 −5 inches), the detection of which necessitates the use of large telescopes that are sensitive to infrared radiation.

The Milky Way, like all other galaxies, was formed from intergalactic gas that was essentially atomic. So where do the molecules come from? One can deduce that they are not left over from the processes that formed the Milky Way because scientists can detect molecules in regions in which they are (currently) being rapidly destroyed; therefore there must be a formation process in operation now. For example, the hydroxyl molecule, OH, can be observed in rather low density interstellar gas regions (containing about 100 H atoms per cubic centimeter) in which it is being destroyed by stellar radiation in a time frame, typically, of ten thousand years. This seems a long time but because the Galaxy has been in existence for a much longer time (about 15 billion years), the OH radicals (and many other species) must have been formed relatively recently in the Galaxy’s history.

Simple collisions between O and H atoms do not lead to the formation of OH molecules, because the atoms bounce apart before they are able to form a chemical bond. Similarly, low temperature collisions between O atoms and H 2 molecules are also unreactive. Astronomers have now determined that much of the chemistry of interstellar space occurs via ion-molecule reactions. Cosmic rays (fast-moving protons and electrons pervading all of interstellar space) ionize molecular hydrogen (H2) and the resulting ions (H2+ ) react quickly with more H2 to form other ions (H3+ ). The H3+ ions drive a chemistry that consists of simple two-body reactions. The extra proton in H3+ is quite weakly bound (relative to the bonding of one proton to another in H2); in a collision an H3+ molecule easily donates its proton to some other species, creating a new molecule. For example, an H3+ ion reacts with an O atom to give OH+ , a new species and the OH+ then reacts with H2 molecules to make, successively, H2 O+ and H3 O+ ions.

This process of H abstraction finishes here, because the O+ ion in H3 O+ has saturated all its valencies with respect to H atoms. However, the H3O+ ion has a strong attraction for electrons because of its positive charge, and the ion-electron recombination leads to dissociation of the ion-electron complex into a variety of products, including OH (hydroxyl) and H2 O (water). Other exchange reactions occur; for example, CO may be formed through the neutral exchange. Similar ion-molecule reactions drive the chemistries of other atoms, such as C and N, to yield ions such as CH3+ and NH3+ . These ions can then react with other species to form larger and more complex molecules. For example, methanol (CH3OH) may be formed by the reaction of CH3+ ions with H 2 O molecules, followed by recombination of the product of that reaction with electrons.  

Ion-molecule reactions, followed by ion-electron recombinations and supplemented by neutral exchanges, are capable of forming the majority of the observed interstellar molecular species. Very large gas-phase reaction networks, involving some hundreds of species interacting in some thousands of chemical reactions, are routinely used to describe the formation of the observed interstellar molecules in different locations in models of interstellar chemistry.

The dust has several important chemical roles. Obviously, it may shield molecules from the destructive effects of stellar radiation. It also has more active roles. We have seen that free atoms in collision may simply bounce apart before they can form a chemical bond. By contrast, atoms adsorbed on the surface of a dust grain may be held together until reaction occurs. It is believed that molecular hydrogen is formed in this way (i.e., through heterogeneous catalysis) and is ejected from dust grain surfaces into the gas volume with high speed and in high states of vibration and rotation. Other simple molecules, such as H2 O, CH4, and NH3, are also likely to form in this way.

In the denser clumps where the gas is very cold, the dust grains are also at a very low temperature (around 10 degrees above absolute zero). Gas phase molecules colliding with such grains tend to stick to their surfaces, and over a period of time the grains in these regions accumulate mantles of ice: mostly H2O ice, but also ices containing other molecules such as CO, CO2, and CH3 OH. Astronomers can detect these ices with spectroscopy. For example, water ice molecules absorb radiation at a wavelength about 3.0 micrometers (11.8 × 10−5 inches), having to do with the O–H vibration in H2O molecules; the molecules do not rotate because they are locked into the ice. In instances in which such ice-coated dust grains lie along a line of sight toward a star that shines in the infrared, this 3.0 micrometer (11.8 × 10−5 inch) absorption is very commonly seen.

Interstellar solid-state chemistry can occur within these ices. Laboratory experiments have shown that ices of simple species such as H2 O, CO, or NH3 can be stimulated by ultraviolet radiation or fast particles (protons, electrons) to form complex molecules, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing several benzene-type rings. The detection by astronomers of free interstellar benzene (C6 H6) in at least one interstellar region suggests that this solid-state chemistry may be the route by which these molecules are made.

The primary role that interstellar molecules play is a passive one: Their presence in regions so obscured by dust that we cannot see into them using optical telescopes is used to probe these regions. The most dramatic example of this is the discovery of the so-called giant molecular clouds in the Milky Way and other galaxies via the detection of the emission of 2.6 micrometers (10.2 × 10−5 inches) wavelength radiation by CO molecules present in these clouds. The existence of these huge gas clouds, containing up to a million times the mass of the Sun, was not suspected from optical observations because these clouds are completely shrouded in dust. However, radio astronomy has shown that these clouds are the largest nonstellar structures in the Galaxy, and that they will provide the raw material for the formation of millions of new stars in future billions of years of the Galaxy’s evolution.

The radiation from molecules that we detect can represent a significant loss of energy from an interstellar cloud. Some molecules are very effective coolants of interstellar gases and help to maintain the temperatures of these gases at very low values. This cooling property is very important in clumps of gas that are collapsing inward under their own weight. If such a collapse can continue over vast stretches of time, then ultimately a star will form. In the early stages, it is important that the clumps remain cool; otherwise the gas pressure might halt the collapse. In these stages, therefore, the cooling effect of the molecules’ emission of radiation is crucial. The formation of stars like the Sun is possible because of the cooling effect of molecules. Interstellar chemistry is therefore one factor determining the rate of star formation in the Galaxy. Astrochemists have shown that it takes about one million years for the molecules of a collapsing cloud to be formed; this is about the same amount of time as that required for the collapse itself to become established. The accompanying image illustrates a region of star formation in the Galaxy.

Astrochemistry also has a role that is particularly significant to the human species here on planet Earth. The planet was formed as a byproduct of the formation of the star that is the Sun, and is in effect the accumulation of dust grains that were the debris of large chunks of matter that subsequently impacted and stuck together.: Its aim is to study the transport of prebiological material in the Galaxy and the development of life within suitable environments in the universe. Earth is still subject to the occasional impacts of debris left over from the formation of the solar system. These impacts, now seen as a source of potential danger, in fact once brought prebiotic material to Earth. The oceans arose from the arrival of icy comets, and carbon, nitrogen, and elemental metals were brought by asteroid impacts. These elements and others are necessary for life on Earth, and a new discipline, astrobiology, is coming into being

Dr. Badruddin Khan teaches Chemistry in the University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

These days a growing number of people are joining CEO peer groups in the hope of getting insight and expertise of other CEOs that can help them tackle crucial business and strategic management issues and make their organizations more successful and productive. However it is extremely important to join the right CEO group which will be suitable for your needs. A wrong CEO conference is a sheer waste of your precious time and money. Here are few tips to help you choose the right CEO group:

A CEO peer group must boast of varied expertise

Be a part of a CEO peer group in Atlanta or any other city which consists of CEOs from different industries with varied skills and strengths. For instance, joining a group which has CEOs from only manufacturing business will not be fruitful at all. On the other hand, a CEO conference which has an architect, a designer, CEO of a textile industry, someone with a MBA degree and others with varied expertise will promise better results.

Size of the CEO group

Select a CEO group which contains not more than 10 to 15 members. Any group containing more than 15 CEOs will never be able to yield results because more than half the time you will wait for your turn to be heard. Moreover steer clear of any CEO conference which doesn’t boast of a good attendance record of its CEO members. As a CEO group with a poor attendance record will never be able to built an atmosphere of trust and confidence where members can share their problems freely. In short, a CEO conference with 10 to 15 people is an ideal size.

An efficient facilitator

A facilitator or a co-ordinator plays a crucial role in meetings of CEO peer groups. In fact a large part of the success or failure of a CEO group depends upon the facilitator. A facilitator makes sure that each member in the group gets a chance to speak and share his/her problems. He encourages the quiet people to come out with their ideas and problems openly and prevents any CEO or participating member from monopolizing or dominating the conversation. Whether you join CEO peer groups in Atlanta or any other city, make sure you do your research about the facilitator before becoming a part of that group.

Confidentiality matters

Confidentiality is taken very seriously in a CEO peer group. Any breach of information will not be tolerated. After all various CEOs share their ideas, business plans, problems, exit planning strategies openly with other people. If some member is found guilty of passing on information, he or she can be removed from the CEO group.

No soliciting business

A CEO group is designed in a way to allow members to share their problems with other experienced people openly. A CEO conference is not a place to solicit business or refer someone. It is for those who seek practical solutions of their problems which they are unable to get in their own organization.

Before joining any CEO peer group, make sure you keep all these things in mind. A good CEO group can take your business to a new level whereas a bad one can spoil everything. So choose wisely.

Tom Bordon is a freelance writer who has extensively written about CEO peer groups in Atlanta and executive business coaching. His articles focus on guiding CEOs, COOs and top level executives in making new business plans, and exit planning strategies in a CEO conference or a CEO group.

As the healthcare industry in India goes through an expansion spree and gears up to become the best-in-class, IT is increasingly being embraced and adopted by healthcare organisations. While for some organisations the motivation for IT implementation is propelled by intention to automate and modernize their functioning, many others are doing it simply to follow the fad.

Whatever the reason, ‘e’ has slowly started getting the better share of healthcare (although long awaited). However, the trend is quite new and very nascent, as compared to other countries. There is a clear crunch of adequately qualified and relevantly experienced IT manpower in this domain and so far it has not been smooth sailing for most organisations.

Among all this, people who are facing most of the brunt are those who are managing IT in healthcare organisations. While the coveted designation of Chief Information Officer (CIO) has quite smartly been adopted by some of the big players in the industry, to a large extent, it remains an ornamental position in the corporate structure, with limited authority and at times with just a shadow power. This issue emerges time and again during interactions with such people.

In reality, the corporate power centre remains with CEOs/COOs/CFOs, particularly when it comes to actual decision-making like IT budgeting, IT investments and in some extreme cases, even IT procurement and implementation. Often, IT plans proposed by CIOs are derailed by their better ‘Cs’ (if not by high-powered doctors with a strong clout and fan following within the organisation). Reasons would be anything starting from lack of funds, weak business case, internal resistance or many a time, just ignorance.

Quite evidently, there is a real need to rationalise the power play inside corporate boardrooms!

Healthcare is possibly among the most data-critical, information intensive and knowledge driven service sectors. Yet, for long, the industry (particularly in the Indian context) has been one of the slowest adopters of IT.

Currently, the IT penetration in Indian healthcare industry is way too small compared to global standards and according to industry analysts, it will be a while before the health IT market blossoms. However, there is a silver lining to this leading market research firms and IT industry experts have projected India among the fastest growing healthcare IT markets in Asia, following China.

Interestingly, the reason for such slow market growth for health IT and hospital automation solutions and services, is not solely due to lack of funds of healthcare providers. Major investment is already happening for healthcare infrastructure development/expansion and medical equipment, but not comparably so for health IT. While the overall healthcare market in India is expected to reach nearly USD 70 billion by 2012, the potential for medical equipment market over the same time period is pegged at USD 18 billion, while that of health IT market at USD 3 billion.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2009)
A Heath Bar
The Heath bar is an American candy bar made of English-style toffee. A thin hard slab with a milk chocolate coating, the toffee originally contained sugar, butter, and almonds, and was a small squarish bar weighing 1 ounce. The original Heath wrapper design had the name “Heath” printed in a distinctive fashion: two very large “H”‘s bookending “eat.” From its inception in the 1920s, the Heath bar was always somewhat unusual, both because of its simplicity and size.[original research?]
In 1913, L. S. Heath, a school teacher, bought an existing confectionery shop in Robinson, Illinois as a likely business opportunity for his oldest sons, Bayard Heath and Everett Heath. The brothers opened a combination candy store, ice cream parlor, and manufacturing operation there in 1914.
With the success of the business, the elder Heath became interested in ice cream, and opened a small dairy factory in 1915. His sons worked on expanding their confectionery business. At some point they reportedly acquired a toffee recipe, via a traveling salesman, from a Greek confectioner in another part of the state. In 1928, they began marketing it locally as “Heath English Toffee”, proclaiming it “America Finest”.
In 1931, when Bayard and Everett were persuaded by their father to sell the confectionery and work at his dairy, they brought their candy-making equipment with them, and established a retail business there. The Heaths came up with the interesting marketing idea of including their toffee on the order form taken around by the Heath dairy trucks, so that one could order Heath bars to be delivered along with one milk and cottage cheese.
Early ads promoted Heath as a virtual health bar only the best milk chocolate and almonds, creamery butter, and ure sugar cane. The motto at the bottom of one ad read eath for better health! It was surrounded by illustrations of milk, cream, butter, cheese, and ice cream, and off in a special corner a Heath bar and a bottle of soda. The latter was probably Pepsi, as the Heath Co. bottled the drink for a number of years.
The Heath bar started to grow in popularity nationally during the Depression, despite its one-ounce size and the five-cent price, equal to larger bars. Made by hand until 1942, the candy was produced on a major commercial scale for good after the U.S. Army placed its first order of $ 175,000 worth of the bars. The Heath bar had been found to have a very long shelf life, and the Army included it in soldiers rations throughout World War II.
Popularity of the Heath bar grew after the war, although the manufacturing process remained largely a hands-on, family-run operation. All four of L.S. Heath sons, his two daughters, and several grandchildren were involved in the business. In the 1950s, the Heath Toffee Ice Cream Bar was developed, and eventually franchised to other dairies.
In the 1960s, the huge national success of the Heath bar led to family in-fighting of some heat, with at least one grandchild of L.S. Heath thrown out of the business. In the 1970s, the company bought the South Dakota company “Fenn Brothers”, which had produced a clone of Heath toffee Butter Brickle.
Elsewhere, the Heath bar was making its way into other products. Already in use crushed up as a ix-in at Steve’s Ice Cream shops in Massachusetts, the bar became the base for one of Ben & Jerry’s most popular flavors when they opened their first shop in 1978. According to the ice cream’s container, in the early years of Ben & Jerry’s, Jerry would climb a ladder to hurl Heath bars to the floor and break them into pieces. The original Heath Bar Crunch has gone to the “flavor graveyard”, but Coffee Heath Bar Crunch and Vanilla Heath Bar Crunch are still manufactured. A Dairy Queen dish was developed using the candy. Heath bar cakes date from at least the 1960s on.
In the 1980s, a Heath Toffee Ice Cream Sandwich appeared, along with Heath Soft Crunchy a Heath bar for those who didn enjoy the hardness of the original bar. The Heath Bar has also been used for a variation of the Klondike bar involving a toffee flavored ice cream square and a chocolate coating with bits of toffee. Today, in addition to recipes for Heath bar cake and various Heath Bar ice cream desserts, there are Heath bar coffeecakes, pies, cookies, brownies, frosting, cheesecake, milkshakes, tortes, and, in a strange twist, Toffee Crusted Chicken Breast, requiring half a cup of crushed Heath toffee combined with bread crumbs to coat six chicken breasts[citation needed].
In 1989, with the diminishing and splintering of the Heath family, the business was sold to a Finnish company, Leaf, Inc., which in turn was acquired by Hershey in 1996. The Heath bar, however, as manufactured by Hershey, remains much the same as it was in 1928. Hershey had initially created the Skor bar to compete with the Heath bar, before it bought out Leaf, Inc.
Since Hershey acquired its production, the bar has been elongated to be more visually competitive with its candy bar shelf-mates, and now weighs 1.4 ounces. Current ingredients are milk chocolate, sugar, palm oil, dairy butter (milk), almonds, salt, artificial flavor, and soy lecithin. The wrapper’s vintage brown color scheme has been kept in the redesign, and a small seal proclaims the Heath as “Finest Quality English Toffee.” The font used for Heath is quite like that used on the earlier double bar.
Books about the Heath Bar
Richard J. Heath, thrown out of the business in 1969, wrote a tell-all book published in 1995. Bittersweet: The Story of the Heath Candy Co..
Ray Broekel, in his book The Great American Candy Bar Book, reveals that there was more than just the oft Crunchy competing for the true Heath bar market. Mr. Broekel lists such bars as Heath Milk Chocolate with Peanuts, Heath Milk Chocolate Toffee Crunch, and Heath Milk Chocolate with Natural Cereal and Raisins. The regular Heath bar was also packaged as a double bar.
External links
Robinson Chamber of Commerce blog entry on “Heath Candy”
Heath bar product info at page at
Toffee-crusted chicken recipe
v d e
Confectionery products of The Hershey Company
Italics indicates discontinued products.
5th Avenue  Almond Joy  Bar None  Cadbury Creme Egg2  Cadbury Dairy Milk2  Cherry Blossom  Dagoba  Glosette  Heath bar  Hershey bar  Hershey’s Kisses  Hershey’s Kissables  Hershey’s Miniatures  Hershey’s S’mores  Hershey’s Special Dark  Kit Kat2  Krackel  Milk Duds  Mini Eggs2  Mounds  Mr. Goodbar  NutRageous  Oh Henry!1  Rolo2  Reese’s Fast Break  Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups  Reese’s Pieces  ReeseSticks  Scharffen Berger  Skor  Snack Barz  Swoops  Take 5 (Max 5)  Whatchamacallit  Whoppers  York Peppermint Pattie
Bubble Yum  Good & Plenty  Good & Fruity  Hershey’s Cookies ‘n’ Creme  Ice Breakers  Jolly Rancher  Koolerz  Mauna Loa  PayDay  Twizzlers  Zagnut  ZERO
Hershey’s also manufactures Cadbury-branded products in the United States and military chocolate for the U.S. armed forces.
1 Marketed in both the United States and Canada, but only sold as a Hershey’s product within Canada.
2 Marketed in a number of countries, but only sold as a Hershey’s product within the United States.
Categories: Candy bars | Hershey brands | History of Illinois | 1928 introductionsHidden categories: Articles lacking sources from May 2009 | All articles lacking sources | All articles that may contain original research | Articles that may contain original research from August 2009 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from September 2009

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Whilst some runners might face looking at a Winter running outdoors as a fate worse than death and decide that they are going to stick to the treadmill, for others running outdoors all year is no problem at all. Often the difference between those who tolerate running in the cold and those who don’t is what they wear.

Clearly running in the winter requires a change of running clothes, when compared to the summer. Shorts and a t-shirt are not really the best idea, unless you are an elite runner competing in a race. Therefore as a runner looking to wear suitable clothing for cold weather running the first thing to consider is what you will be comfortable wearing.

Every runner is unique and for some people, who run ‘hot’ they typically can get away with wearing less clothes than those who are more susceptible to the cold. Experimentation over short distances is a good idea. However, it can be normal that when you head out for a run that you are initially cold, then you warm up you start getting way too hot. Also- for those who run longer distances after a while when you settle into your run you can start to get very cold again, which can be dangerous and will hamper your running performance.

Most people know that a lot of heat is lost through a person’s head, therefore wearing a hat can help reduce this heat loss and keep you warm. Also- wearing running gloves is another great way of staying warm. Some runners still wear short sleeved tops, and running vest along with their gloves as they find this is enough to keep them warm when you run. Typically gloves and hats are relatively light weight so are easy to carry when you start to warm up, or alternatively put back on again if you start to get too cold.

Running gillets are another great way to keep some heat where it matters more, at your core, whilst allowing you to remain fairly cool. Again experimenting is a great idea here. For those runners who tend to feel the cold more than most winter running jackets or rain jackets will almost certainly keep you warm when you run.

Base-layers are another useful piece of clothing to experiment with when out running. Sometimes combining a base layer with a t-shirt will be enough to keep you warm.

Ensuring that you experiment with different clothes and running distances will enable you to prepare for most circumstances. Also it is worth remembering that when racing most people tend to run harder and faster, so wearing too much clothes in these circumstances can mean you overheat. Keeping one eye on the outdoor temperature and weather forecast is also a great way of ensuring you do not get caught out. There is an old Norwegian saying that states that there is no such thing as bad weather, just bad clothing and when it comes to running in the winter it is proved to be very correct.

Lucy is a fanatical runner and is currently researching

“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”

With that incredible sentence Jane Austen draws the reader into her story. Is she serious we ask? ‘A truth universally acknowledged’ is the language of mathematics, of science, of logic; it is like saying: “we are dealing with self-evident truths–axioms.”

How does this statement apply to society? to families? to manners? From the beginning Jane tells us that a little teasing doesn’t hurt anyone –lighten up, dear readers– don’t tighten your seat belts; we’re in for a smooth enjoyable ride.

Although I have read many articles and reviews on Pride and Prejudice, its perennial enchantment has eluded me until now. What makes this novel a favorite of so many readers after so many years?

The title to begin with, is provocative. Both terms pride and prejudice are applicable to Elizabeth Bennet and Darcy. But prejudice is directed more towards Darcy than Elizabeth. I would have like Jane Austen to use the word ‘Prejudgement’ as opposed to prejudice because the former word is laden with situational biases such as when Darcy prejudges Elizabeth: “She is tolerable; but not hadsome enough to tempt me.”

Ah, the title is also alliterative; and it would have also worked with prejudgement. Which tells us that Jane was a student of rhetoric. In fact, Mary –the pedantic sister– alludes to Hugh Blair’s, the then much-in-vogue Lectures on Rhetoric.

Not wanting to walk along the trodden path I want to propose a few personal impressions.

First, it is a syntactically flawless–British English at its best– narrative which is never boring; perhaps due to Austen’s adroit handling of the Indirect Free Speech. Although scholars generally attribute the invention to french writers, the brit lady Jane Austen had already been employing the technique in all her her fiction.

Second, the characters are diverse: some attractive (Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy, Jane and Bingley) and others picturesque (Charlotte Lucas and Mr. Collins, Mrs. Bennet, and Lady Catherine de Bourgh). Given the superb characterization of Mr. Collins, I would throw him into the circle where The Wife of Bath, Falstaff, and Sancho reside.

Third, that Pride and Prejudice is a moral work in which not only good manners and judicious decisions are privileged, but also virtue. To sin on the side of virtue I will predict that at the end of this century, readers will still be delighting in the pride, prejudice, and prejudgments of Jane Austen’s lovable characters. If someone asked me to choose between Pride and Prejudice and the DaVinci Code, I would say in horror: “You’re asking me to choose between a pure-breed race horse, and a jackass–with all due respect to jackasses.”

When the divine Plato cast poets and artists out of his utopian Republic, little did he realize that one can learn virtue from literature as well as from philosophy. And that is a ‘truth universally acknowledged.’

So, for now, I will say “keep your breath to cool your porridge–and I shall keep mine to swell my song.”

Retired. Former investment banker, Columbia University-educated, Vietnam Vet (67-68). For the writing techniques I use, see Mary Duffy’s e-book: Sentence Openers

Yesterday I went to a seminar conducted by a local club wherein the topic of discussion was Indian economic model. The speakers were vociferous in criticizing Nehruvian model of economy. This is not the first time that I see somebody vomiting venom against Nehru. Many times Nehru has been criticized for his strategy of planning during the formative years of independence. Most importantly these criticisms come from highly educated people who have seen interest in the economic development of the nation. Their main point of criticism is based on the fundamental incongruence of the high growth rate of the globalized economic model post 1991 and the low growth rate of 1960s controlled economy. In this short essay I am not going to compare the benefits or short comings of the two economic models; because comparisons as they say always tend to be odious. I will only point to some subtle points which might have influenced the planning process during the post independence period.

When India gained freedom the immediate consideration of our leaders was to restructure a broken economy. The major problems that they had faced were:-
1. lack of capital
2. lack of financial institutions
3. lack of infrastructure
4. lack of secondary (industry) or tertiary(service) sector and hence over dependence on primary

(agricultural) sector

At that time there were two models of development open for the policy makers. The first one is the famous Gandhian model of development which was aimed at minimization of wants to meet the lesser supply and second was the Nehruvian model which was aimed at the maximization of supplies to meet the increasing wants of people. You can see the diametrical opposition between these two models of development. Today, we may laugh at the Gandhian model for its naivety but at that point of time it was a major theoretical concept. However the untimely demise of Gandhi, had put an end to his concept of development and Nehruvian model remained the only alternate available for the policy makers. Here we need to consider the lower level of maturity and low experience of our policy makers, including Nehru, because it was the first time they were doing these kind of things and the enthusiasm had over powered any pragmatic thinking for an alternate, though there were small voices of left blocks could be heard here and there. Now, we would see what might have influenced Nehru’s conception of the economic plan which later came to be known as mixed economy.

We will discuss why this model is called a mixed economic model later; we will first see what prepared for the ground work of this model. At that time two models were prevalent in the world:
1. capitalist economy: characterized by free economic forces
2. communist economy: state controlled economy
There was enormous international pressure on Nehru to adopt any of these two models. But he was aware of the pros and cons of these two models.

a. why India could not have adopted a capitalist model:-
Indian market was not evolved at that time. There was lack of capitals. If privatization were free then it would have two serious consequences:
i. there would have been monopoly of a few private houses which would have ked to heavy

ii. Secondly, there would have been complete neglect of heavy enterprises.
The reason for this was, infrastructure and heavy industrial projects have high gestation periods that means the profit would come only after a couple of decades. So the private players would not be expected to invest money on such kind of projects. This would have led India to a country with no infrastructure at all. So the only alternate left was state investment in such heavy projects. So capitalist economic model with dependence on market was struck down.

b. Why India could not have adopted a communist model?

The ardent leftist critics of Nehru say why Nehru did not make build India on the lines of Russia. I think the following factors would have prevented Nehru from adopting a strict communist pattern of economic model.

i. Communism as an ideology lies in revolution. Here the economic reforms are preceded by a social revolution that breaks up the social order and ushers a new model. So basically, such a model is endogenous that is change from within. But an exogenous application of communist ethos would result in mere redistribution of wealth but won’t usher a revolutionary life (: said by Che Guevara). One cannot have true communist economy through policy making. USSR and China were successful in having a communist economy because they were followed by a revolution and hence total usurpation of the existing economy by the communist philosophy. In 1950s India and for that matter Nehru could not have approved of a social revolution through strict communist planning or otherwise. So a strict communist economy was out of question.

ii. Secondly, Nehru also wanted a balanced growth of market. State intervention in the heavy projects were necessary because of lack of capital but agriculture and service sectors did not need heavy gestation so private investment was possible. Hence these sectors remained on private control. And heavy industries were under state control. Some criticize Nehru of neglecting agriculture. Perhaps their point of criticism is towards the Congressional inability to implement concept of co-operative farming. Nehru did talked about co-operative farming, but it did not materialize because of political reasons. Nehru because of his astounding majority in the Loksabha could have his will carried away with little opposition, but he did not think it was prudent to start a political crisis during the early years of polity. As an alternate to the co-operative farming he introduced the concept of community development project, which aimed at wholesome development of the rural India.

So India adopted a model of economy which had place for both the private player and the state. It was like a variable sum approach to power wherein no body holds power in exclusion of the other party, though some may say that the model favoured the public sectors or state controlled enterprises more. This is called mixed economic model because of the participation of both private sector as the provider of consumer goods and the public sector as the commanding heights of economy dictating the infrastructural development of the country.

Now before having a conclusion about the pros and cons of Nehruvian model which is called Fabian socialism we can put our attention to two brief economic models. They are:
a. redistribution first
b. production first

Redistribution first has similarity with communist economic models. Here the wealth is first redistributed among the various sections and after that the development and progress is though of. So the cost of development, as in high capital investment, is borne by both the present generation and the future generation. On the other hand the production first model aims at increasing the production first and then thinking about redistribution of the production among the people. In this case the pressure of high capital investment has to be born by the present generation. Nehru as an ideological policy adopted the second one, perhaps influenced by the age old Indian tradition of paternal care towards the children.

Many criticize Nehru that this ideology means not eradicating the economic inequality. Nehru’s logic in this case was also equally appreciative. According to his model, a slight degree of inequality was acceptable for the rapid development. And secondly, if redistribution was done first, then the poor who had been the victim of poverty would have squandered their wealth on goods of immediate gratification. This would not have helped for saving of the country.

So as an ideological model the mixed economic model was the best suited model at that point of time. Even though the evil repercussions of the model was seen in the late 198s in terms of heavy credit crunch, but it was more because of misuse than the model itself. Besides we should not forget the benefits of this model which has manifested in SAIL, GAIL, BHEL, IITs, RECs, Dams, Ports and other infrastructural marvels and also green revolution. So before criticizing Nehruvian model one has to understand the temporal dimensions of his policies also.

Mitrabhanu Mahapatra works as a free lance writer-cum-photographer. He is presently running a web site called incubation360 which is a repository of very high quality articles on contemporary issues. Mitrabhanu has good depth of knowledge in the areas of sociology and evolution of society. His point of analysis of society is through a systems approach with hints of organized anarchy model. He also takes interest in philosophical writings which try to find out the relationship between reliigon-spirituality and science. You can get to know more about him and his articles in the link:

Many newspapers are available for free when you board the airplane. Don’t be a fool and pay before you board, but find out before you even get on the plane.

Many airlines offer free newspapers to their customers. It depends what time of day you fly, but if you get a flight in the morning it’s likely you be given a free paper. Each airport will be likely to have different deals with newspapers, so unless you are travelling first class, don’t expect you favorite daily to be available. If you want to ensure your newspaper is available you need to check with the airline before flying. When flying a common route often you’ll be able to learn which newspaper will greet you when taking regular flights from Philadelphia to Montreal or leaving from the same airport on regularly scheduled flights from Philadelphia to La Romana.

But as the customers taking flights that leave in the mornings will likely take all the good newspapers, you’ll need to prepare yourself for the potential that a newspaper will not be available. Bring a book or buy a newspaper yourself to ensure that you aren’t disappointed or left with nothing to read when you get on the plane. Your electronic devises and inflight cannot help you here: only dead tree media is available to during departure and until you hit about 31,000 feet. Only then can you take out your gadgets and begin enjoying the inflight entertainment. So when travelling on regular flights from Phoenix to Philadelphia remember that you might need to make your own fun and won’t necessarily be provided for.

What you need to remember is that you won’t always get a free newspaper when you board. You should just consider yourself lucky when it does happen, rather than expect it every time you fly.

Stacey is an experienced travel writer and writes for numerous travel publications


Cyber bullying on children, a relatively new phenomenon, has left parents scratching their heads wondering how they can prevent it. Parents facing the influences of social networking sites and cell phone based bullying on their child can take a practical approach to get rid of cyberbullying with a few easy steps.

Prevent Raising a Bully

According to a recent study conducted by researchers from Tulane University, “children who were spanked more than twice a month were 50% more likely than those who weren’t spanked to develop aggressive behaviors.”

It’s easy to point fingers at parents, but even good parents can end up raising a bully. Below is a brief list of useful tips to help parents as much as possible:

Be a source of inspiration for your child by knowing how to control your temper, as your child keenly studies your behavior.
Listen: Get involved with your child and pay close attention to their social relationships and your child’s words about their classmates.
Maintain a friendly environment where your children can be assured that they can share their feelings with their parents.
Give your child exposure to a diverse environment and explain to your child why it is important to respect people from all walks of life.
Impart discipline, respect, and good manners to your child. Teach your child empathy.
Seek the help of professionals if your child portrays a lot of aggression or was once doing so.

Identify Cyberbullying

The best way to make sure that your teen is safe online is to use an internet and cell phone monitoring parental control software that requires no download or installation. Such software is designed to make parents aware of the questionable behavior of children on the web, including the photos and the videos that kids share publically, personal information, potential internet addiction, and change in privacy settings on social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace automatically.

Along with this, parental control software can also help you keep tabs on a child’s mobile phone usage, including mms and text messages, and empower parents to guard their child’s reputation by flagging postings that could cause serious harm to your teen’s future. All you have to do to sign up is simply submit your teen’s email address and the software will take care of everything else.

Talk to your children

Kids are not always open to the idea of reporting a bullying incident, whether they are a victim or a bystander because many teens think that telling a trusted adult may result in their computer or cell phone privileges being taken away.

Kids need to know that adults take their reports of bullying seriously and will take action. If your child is currently a victim of bullying or cyberbullying, follow some of the conversation points below with your kid or teen:

If you don’t trust us, then at least share your problems with your friend. It’s an easier way to tackle the situation of an aggressive child by including someone who is your child’s friend in the conversation.
We’re always there for you, you aren’t alone. Numerous children suffer the affect of isolation today.
Please talk to me, you don’t need to suffer. Please let me know what’s going on, or I can’t help you. If you don’t prefer telling me, then speak to a trusted teacher or counselor at school and together we can solve your problem. (Try to console your child, and develop trust that silence may worsen the situation more).
Never strike back. Although your child’s aggressive behavior may double your anger and frustrate remember never to react in kind to children. It will only worsen the situation and double your child’s aggressive attitude.
Console your child to entertain outside school activities. Boost your children’s confidence by involving them in good activities that will raise their self-esteem.

Follow these simple steps and safeguard your kids and teens from cyberbullying and other online threats.


Monitor your child’s online activity and track cell phone text messages by using Safetyweb – Parental control software. Safetyweb does not require any download or installation, and helps parents in monitoring cell phonesfacebook monitoring and tracking other online activities of their children to identify cyberbullying and safeguard the safety of their children.

The psychologists point out that most of the normal adults has the potential to lead a double life. Imitation of others, trying to play the entirely different role with oneself is the embodiment of dual personality. In fact, this desire for the change of role would continue to adulthood. At the bottom of everyone’s heart, there exists a secret world, in which, you can let your imagination soar and shape the role that you want to be.

Nowadays, the tech of internet makes it possible for people to build their own secret world in internet space, many netters have more than one user name on internet. They can play any role they like in network world, and enjoy their imagination and acting skills. The one on internet is actually another one in your heart. When people have problems in real life, they would talk their distress, vent emotions through another identity in the online world. Thus their mental stress and tension will be relieved unconsciously. Because, in the online world, you do not have the need to bear the consequence that your words and deeds would cause, so the one on the network is actually another aspect of you.

The psychologists have also pointed out that people with no secrets would easily fall into some mental diseases. The research has shown that psychological role-playing is very necessary for people’s mental health. People who have no secrets will easily lost him, become suspicious and get depressed when they have problems on social interaction, work or marriage. On the contrary, people who have a secret world can find an exit to vent in his visional world.

There are indeed some people with several different identities in the multitude life. They contact with the unlinked people, have the different performance on the different occasion. This kind of people mostly lead an affluent life, but tough and dogma family. They grow up according their parents’ own will. And when they get married, they want to be a good wife, husband, good parents, and lead a well-behaved life in other’s eyes. When night falls or they travel alone, the other side in their heart will show up, and they would become a completely different people. This shows that the multifaceted nature of people, if make it reasonable, it is not a bad idea, for people are under the tremendous pressure.

When you can’t well adapt to the multiple roles of life, you should be promptly find a psychiatrist to talk. It is not error that people have more than one faces, the key is to balance them.

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