Human Rights Day (December 10, 1998) marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted this document. It is not legally binding on the signatories, but it has moral force that commands worldwide respect. Thus, the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a standard by which many people throughout the world judge the conditions of citizenship and government internationally and within their own countries. This document, which includes 30 articles pertaining to various human rights, is also a focal point of education about human rights in schools throughout the world.
“Human rights are the claims that all human beings are justly entitled to make merely by virtue of their being human” (Plattner 1995, 573). In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when this idea became prominent in Western Europe and North America, it carried the label “natural rights” to denote derivation of these rights from the nature of every human being. Each person, according to the natural rights concept, possesses equally certain immutable rights by virtue of her or his membership in the human species; it is the duty of a just government to protect these rights.
The United States Declaration of Independence, adopted July 4, 1776, expresses the “natural rights” idea in these memorable words: “We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these Rights Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the Consent of the Governed. That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the right of the People to alter or Abolish it and to institute new Government . . . ”
This Declaration of Independence by and for the people of a new American nation still has global implications. The same can be said about the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen issued by France’s National Assembly in 1789, which proclaimed: “The end of all political associations is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man; and these rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance of oppression.”
The 1787 Constitution and the 1791 Bill of Rights of the United States of America were designed and adopted to address the civic values of the 1776 Declaration of Independence. This Constitution reflects the understanding among America’s founders that the individual’s rights are at risk if a government is either too strong or too weak. A good government simultaneously is empowered and limited. It is empowered sufficiently by the people to secure their rights against domestic or foreign predators. And this government’s power is also limited sufficiently by the supreme law of its constitution to protect the people’s rights against abuses by their own governors.
During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the concept of natural rights was transformed into the idea of human rights. This change reflected an expansion of the scope or range of rights to include two types of claims.
The first and older type is negative; it would limit the power of a government to protect peoples’ rights against its power. The second and newer type of claim is positive; it would enhance the power of the government to do something for the person to enable her or him in some way. Thus, the late twentieth century idea of human rights, which incorporates both the positive and negative types, means that “certain things ought not to be done to any human being and certain other things ought to be done for every human being” (Perry 1998, 13).
The older negative claims on rights are exemplified by Articles 1-21 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These Articles imply that no government or society should act against individuals in certain ways that would deprive them of inherent political or personal rights, such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion. The newer positive claims on rights are exemplified by Articles 22-28 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They imply that every government and society should act for individual members to enable them to enjoy certain social and economic rights or benefits pertaining to social security, employment, housing, education, health care, and general standard of living.
There is general or global agreement among advocates of human rights that both types of rights, the negative and positive, must be included in a worthy constitutional government. However, there is worldwide conflict or disagreement about which type of rights is primary and most important in a constitutional democracy.
Advocates for the primacy and predominance of positive rights claim that “bread is more important than freedom of speech.” They argue that the duties of government to provide social and economic welfare benefits for all the people require enhancement of public power and authority to enter all areas of economic and social life to promote the common good (Patrick 1991, 622).
By contrast, proponents of the negative rights tradition worry about the enormous increase of centralized government power required to provide positive rights through large-scale public programs. This could lead to a government so powerful and insufficiently limited that it could arbitrarily deprive particular persons (those out of favor with authorities) of their traditional personal and political rights. Thus, they maintain that human rights generally depend upon the primacy of guaranteed negative rights. They assert: a constitutional democracy that would only recognize negative rights is incomplete; one that would only or primarily recognize positive rights is impossible (Patrick 1991, 623).

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Is your child bi-polar?

How do you know if your kid is bi-polar? This question is hard to answer simply due to the fact that bi-polar disorder is not something that can be physically tested for and, a bipolar diagnosis is in fact nothing more than a opinion given by a medical professional, as is schizophrenia and depression. Many people believe sudden mood changes in teenagers are usually the first signs of bi polar disease, however, sudden mood changes can be caused by several factors. So does my child have bi polar disease? The following things need to be looked at when you are faced with the possibility of your child having this attention defect known as bi polar disorder. Please continue reading these symptoms of bipolar disorder in children to follow my guidelines that you may not find anywhere else.

Mood swings are one of the very first signs that something in your child is amiss. This however, does not mean that he or she can have bipolar disorder. Mood swings are very common in all teenagers and often experienced due to biologically based causes. Some of this may include abuse, emotional trauma, death, family problems or abnormal hormone development. Although mood swings are one of the first symptoms of bipolar disorder, please make sure you rule our all other possibilities for this before you mistakenly label your child.

Does your child have a self-destructive behavior? Destructive behaviors may include fast driving, anti-social, drugs, wrong friends and suicide attempts. This however doesn’t mean that your child is bipolar, as destructive behavior are common amongst teenagers. Destructive behavior being part of bipolar disorder depends on the child’s home environment as well as any other extenuating factors.

Usually when a child has bipolar disorder, he or she will often describe a feeling of inability to feel whole. This means that they will feel as if they have a hole inside them that they cannot fill. Almost as if there is something missing inside. This usually involves something emotional, something they have had or felt before, and not anymore. The inability to feel whole often leads to self destruction or the child being outlandish.

For more information on bipolar symptoms in children, please visit:

Around the web Paid for Surveys has lengthy been highly appropriately-recognized amongst the Give very good results As portion of your respective household and Family Foundation Corporation arena for some time now. Why is which you just just may possibly well possibly request? Extremely properly, I contemplate it’s thanks in direction of the fact most individuals suppose they’ve the talent sets expected to finish the perform needed. It also falls within our consolation zone and it would seem like a sensible complete possibility.

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The recent hot issue in Thailand nowadays is about Referendum for the new charter of Thailand. After the temporary draft which announced by the Council for National Security, revolution group in 2007. Most of people are against them and accused they want the power in their hand and was going to practice dictatorship. So, they was in hurry to appoint legislature of constitutional drafting.

Afterward, the constitution have been pass the processes until it completely replete. Before this term, people had against in many issue in the new charter such as to insert Buddhism for the formal religion of Thailand, reduce the number of people who want to submit legal drafting, add more access for people who effected from the wrongdoing of the government’s officer.

In my opinion, the law always good for every one but it depends on the user no matter lawyer, politician, judge or jury. Any person who get involve the law in their profession must be honest and dignified. So, the message of the law is 60% important and another important factor is 40% of the user.

However, most of people in Thailand do not want to accept this constitution as a result of revolution. They think this draft come from the Council for National Security which is the group of people who was did a revolution. But most of them do not know that if they will not accept the Council for National Security has rights to announce their own constitution and use it. That will be a real charter which the people against as well.

So, I would like to accept this constitution to let my country more stable. I need honest politicians in my democracy country. I study at law school now, and I want to see my country grows up in the real democracy border. I hope everything will be better on 19th August 2007, fair vote of real democratic people.

Spin articles are unique articles that are produced by using an original article, whereby various variations of the sentences and words are randomly rearranged. This is a great way to create a large amount of different articles, using a single ‘seed’ article. You could use a software program designed to create spin articles, but many times they give you back articles that are unusable.

These tools replace synonyms within the seed article, which leads to a poorly written copy that can sometimes barely make sense. The best option you have is to use a human powered spinner, this way humans can do a much better job than any software available. By using actual writers you can get articles back that are intelligently written and more exciting for your audience to read.

What is the reason for these spin articles? You will find the more unique articles you have on the web, the higher your search engine ranking will be. By posting thes articles all over the web you can move up your rank in the search results by getting thousands of backlinks. Also, you can use these articles on your own sites to maintain a fresh flow of content and impress the search engines. Creating high quality spin articles is not quick and easy, it takes time and effort. Now there are services available at which takes the work out of it for you by creating the spin articles. can supply you with clear ultra spinnable articles 7 days a week, allowing you time to do other things. This service is powered by a team of talented writers who create articles of 500 words or more each of great quality and copyscape tested. Each article is relevant to internet marketing, including Clickbank reviews. It is named an ‘Ultra Spinnable Articles Service’ due to the fact that each article created can in turn create a large amount of variations. Each paragraph is rewritten five times, then each sentence is rewritten five times.

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Australian fire fighters are now recognized as one of the world’s most expert. Fire fighting therefore has also been important for shaping the country’s national characteristics. The country has thankfully not been invaded for two centuries but it has constant threats from fires. Fire fighting is a local government state government activity. The Australian Government created by Thomas Sabo Jewellery colonial federation in 1901 may help with emergency financial relief after a fire but fighting the fire is a local and state government activity. Throughout the nineteenth century, there was an official feeling that little could be done to fight bushfires except by individual local action.

There could be no equivalent of today’s early warning system. There were no weather forecasts and no way of spreading them quickly even if they had existed. Daily newspapers often took days to reach parts of each state. Local authorities could not impose fire bans because fires were an essential part of everyday living, such as in cooking and lighting the home. Therefore, before about 1900 there was no colony wide system for fire fighting. Fires were an act of nature that had to be survived and endured. Gradually public opinion forced more action by government. After major fires, there were occasionally calls for more government activity. Even if the fires were an inevitable act of nature, official steps could be taken beforehand to minimize the risk of fire. The Berrigan Brigade in NSW claims to be the oldest brigade in Australia. The first official mention of it was in November 1900. A 1906 NSW law authorized local governments to form bushfire brigades throughout the state. During World War II, there were fears of bush fires damaging national security.

Emergency bush fire committees were created to confront that risk. The NSW Rural Fires Act came into effect in September 1997. This arose from the investigation into the 1993/4 NSW bush fires.

There is now – for the first time a single rural fire service with a single chain of command. There are now about 69,000 volunteer fire fighters in about 2,400 brigades in 143 rural fire districts. They fight fires in about 90 per cent of the Thomas Sabo Charms area of NSW and are responsible for about 1,200 towns and villages. The fire fighters are supported by other organizations.

For example, the Australian Red Cross often provides the meals, cooking meals in community halls. In the event of an evacuation, Red Cross registration teams record the names of those who are relocated so that relatives can know that they are safe and that any missing persons are identified quickly. Bush fires can be an appalling tragedy but they can also bring out the best in local community spirit and bravery.

Thomas Sabo jewelry has become the leading company in the retail industry.

Only when have you been living in the Outer Hebrides for years, you would not have heard about climate change and its effect on the Earth.



In a nutshell, rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, mainly Carbon Dioxide (CO2), resulting from man’s activities, are causing the planet to heat up (this used to be called global warming) causing all sorts of unpleasant side effects: melting ice caps, rising sea levels, very bad weather, water shortages, droughts, famine, extinction of species, and worse to come for us if we continue to ignore the warnings.


The big problem is that we’ve all been living like we had 4 planets to sustain us. In the South East we’ve been particularly bad apparently.


That’s the bad news. The good news is that if we all took some actions, even small ones, they’d add up to something much bigger that would make a difference, and maybe we can stop this thing, before, it gets really really awful.


(For a great explanation of all this, check out Al Gore’s film An Inconvenient Truth – out on DVD now.)


So where to start. Well, first off we each need to work out our own carbon footprint – a measure of our individual impact on the environment, measured in units of CO2 – and then we can work out how to go about reducing it.


As a guide, the carbon footprint of a typical household breaks down like this:


– roughly 1/3 of the CO2 emissions come from the energy used to heat and power your home
– another 1/3 comes from transport, including driving, and especially flights, one of the worst culprits, and
– the final 1/3 comes from food miles ie the emissions resulting from getting food to your table (which is why it’s important to get locally grown food as much as possible).


Working out your carbon footprint can be quite complicated; you need your energy bills, to know how many miles you drive, and to work out how far you’ve flown, or travelled by train or bus, but there are quite a few websites out there that can help – try or The average for a UK household is about 12.5 tonnes of CO2.


When I worked out my own footprint, I discovered that almost 50% of my total carbon emissions last year came from two short haul flights (to Ibiza and Toulouse – 2 tonnes of CO2), which was quite an eye opener, and is making me think about how many flights I take in future. The next biggest contributor, at about 800 tonnes, was the electricity I use. Luckily I now buy green electricity, from 100% renewable sources like wind, solar and wave power – it doesn’t cost any more (go to and say I sent you) – so I’ve done something about that. I also belong to a car club instead of owning a car, so my car usage is quite low.


Once you’ve worked out your own carbon footprint, you can set about reducing it – the long term target is a miniscule 1 tonne of CO2 per person per year. Here are some ideas to get you started:

Use alternatives to planes wherever possible (check out

Avoid short trips in the car

Get low energy lightbulbs

Buy electricity from renewable sources

Turn things off when you’re not using them, and don’t leave appliances on standby, which can use up to 85% of the energy of the appliance


Cover food when cooking

Boil only the water you need

If everyone upgraded their fridge to an A-rated model, co2 emissions would be cut by the equivalent of 47 million double deckers of gas per year.


There are plenty more things you can do, and they all add up – have a look at my website for things that can help you live a more eco-friendly and sustainable life.


And once you’ve got your footprint down as low as possible, you can think about carbon offsetting the rest, but that’s another story.


by Nigel Berman

The question of where to spend your advertising dollars is always a hard one. If you are in the hospitality business and are wondering if hospitality magazines are a thing of the past, and electronic media is the only effective advertising available, you might want to consider this:

Readers buy a particular magazine because it addresses issues that they are particularly interested in and offers products and services that are tailored to their needs. They are therefore more receptive to the ads and will pay attention to them.

The hospitality magazine scene has publications ranging from food services to the cafe and coffee culture magazines, adventure and travel magazines, leisure and culinary art, and many more. When advertising in one of those magazines, you know you are reaching your target crowd. Every single person reading that magazine will have some interest in the hospitality industry.

Advertising in hospitality magazines has proven to be cost effective, because magazines know their readers and vice versa. If you know your targeted audience, you can capture them again and again through an ad in their favorite magazine. Magazines are not like the daily paper, which gets one glance and ends up in the recycling bin the next day. Magazines sit on the table for weeks, sometimes months, and get passed on to friends, neighbors and family.

One of the most effective ways to advertise your accommodation place or restaurant is in travel and tourist magazines that target a particular locality. When a magazine dedicates a section of their issue to your local area, take this great opportunity to promote your business. All the background promotion work is already done for you – the hospitality magazine articles will highlight all the attractions of your area and draw your customers, who will be looking for a place to stay and somewhere to eat – your ad will reach its target audience immediately.

The same applies to any issue or theme that a magazine will feature which is relevant to the product or service that you offer. If, for example you specialize in serving gourmet coffee, and the magazine has an article on coffee or the coffee culture, placing an advertisement for your business on those pages is one of the most effective ways to promote your business and put it on the front line. You have a captured audience – they are reading the article and are already attracted to your product, all you need to do is provide them with the details and convince them that you offer just what they are looking for.

When designing the ad, make sure your business name and the service you provide stand out in clear, bright letters. Mention at least one item or quality that makes you stand out from the rest – you have to convince your prospective customers that you are better than the competition! If you include a picture or photo, choose one that will attract attention and instantly create a positive association with your organization. And make sure your contact details are clear -a free phone number will increase the number of enquiries; in fact, anything with the word ‘free’ has been shown to draw instant attention.

Remember, if you want to reach a targeted audience, take advantage of the specialty hospitality magazines. The readers – and your potential customers – spend more time reading the articles and more time reading the ads because they are more relevant to them.

Leith James has been a chef for over fifteen years and knows the secrets of effective business management with a book titled “The Secret ingredient to finding hospitality staff”. His vision is to improve hospitality quality and educate employers on effective hiring techniques through personality assessments. Read more articles like Hospitality Magazines or Get instant Access for the Free hospitality mini course at

If you’ve been wondering about what on earth pluripotent stem cells are, then this is the article for you. We’ll look at what they are, what they do and most importantly why they are not the answer to all our health issues. By the end, you’ll have a great understanding and will know all about them.

First, let’s look at what they are. Pluripotent stem cells are found in relatively small numbers in the body in various tissues and umbilical cord blood. Much of the research has been to identify their differentiation potential and we have even seen procedures whereby umbilical cord stem cells have been re-injected into patients. They do not attract the same controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, and because they are derived from a born human being, are also classified as adult stem cells.

Next, let’s look at what they do. For most pluripotent adult stem cells, their ability to regenerate is limited to the tissues they are taken from. For example, stem cells taken from the skin will only become skin cells. Injecting them into the liver, will not result in new liver cells. Researchers are trying to find a way to change these pluripotent adult stem cells to become any cell of the body.

Finally, let’s look at why pluripotent stem cells are not the answer to all our health issues. As we have already seen, PSC taken from skin for example, cannot become new cells of the liver. This won’t help people with cardiovascular disease or degenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s. The answer lies in another type of adult stem cells — the ones from our bone marrow.

For years, we’ve used these successfully to treat leukemia and blood/bone cancers by transplanting them into patients. The newest research however, indicates there are some 150 million adult stem cells in our bone marrow and that as stem cells that can become any type of tissue, they represent the renewal system of the body.

So there you have it, everything you wanted to know about pluripotent stem cells. We’ve looked at what they, what they do and finally why they are not the answer to our health problems. All the latest research points to adult stem cells from our own bone marrow being the natural renewal system of our bodies, so all we need to do is get more of them to release into our bloodstream.


Learn How to Unleash the Awesome Power of Your Own Stem Cells at

The harms caused by plastic pollution can be classified into two types: visual pollution and potential harms.

Visual pollution means the scattering of plastic bags, boxes, cups and bowels is unpleasant to vision and environment.

First, there are various potential harms caused by plastic pollution. First, one-off expanded plastic boxes and bags influence our health significantly. When the temperature arises to 65 C, toxic substances in boxes and bags can penetrate into the food, harmful to the liver, kidney and nervous system.

The bags we use to store food are usually made of PVC. Forty years ago, people found that there is VCM in PVC bags which causes people have swelled wrists, fingers, and splenomegaly, liver injury. Those bags are recycled from waster plastics, such as plastic bin, one – shot injector and so on. They are smashed into plastic particles and then are washed in a pool and at last are pressed into pieces of membrane. Many people store dishes with those bags. They don’t know what they have done can damage their health and the environment.

Second, plastics worsen soil pollution and influence the growth of plants. The degradation of plastic bags and boxes needs at least 200 years. When they are leaved in the field, the crops can not absorb enough water and nutrients. As a result, they grow slowly. And their output is reduced. If animals eat the plastic bags, they may die of digestive tract diseases.

Third, landfill is still a main way to deal with the rubbish. As plastic bags take up a large area and plus, they have low density, they can easily fill the landfill field and reduce its capacity of dealing with rubbish. As a result, the base becomes soft and bacteria, viruses in rubbish can easily penetrate in the ground, polluting the underground water and endangering the around environment.

Besides, as disposable plastic tableware is hard to be degraded, people begin to use so called “green tableware”, paper tableware. Though cellulose of paper tableware can be degraded by microorganism, the launch of it is unwise. First, paper tableware also brings the visual pollution. Its degradation takes a long time, in scores of days or several months. Second, when producing paper tableware, straw pulp, rice straw pulp and wood pulp are used. Thus, a great amount of woods are consumed and deforestation is aggravated. Third, production of paper tableware consumes a lot of water, energy and discharges plenty of wastes. If the polluted water directly comes into the river, the water pollution will occur. When drying the paper tableware, a lot of energy (mainly from the burning of coal) will be consumed. As a result, sulfur dioxide may arise a lot in the air and causes acid rain.

Zhenzhen He is the freelance writer for e-commerce website in the chemistry. is just a place for you to Look for Chemicals! Our LookChem provide the most convenient conditions for the international buyers and let these leads benefit all the business person.