Posts Tagged ‘Cells’

If you’ve been wondering about what on earth pluripotent stem cells are, then this is the article for you. We’ll look at what they are, what they do and most importantly why they are not the answer to all our health issues. By the end, you’ll have a great understanding and will know all about them.

First, let’s look at what they are. Pluripotent stem cells are found in relatively small numbers in the body in various tissues and umbilical cord blood. Much of the research has been to identify their differentiation potential and we have even seen procedures whereby umbilical cord stem cells have been re-injected into patients. They do not attract the same controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, and because they are derived from a born human being, are also classified as adult stem cells.

Next, let’s look at what they do. For most pluripotent adult stem cells, their ability to regenerate is limited to the tissues they are taken from. For example, stem cells taken from the skin will only become skin cells. Injecting them into the liver, will not result in new liver cells. Researchers are trying to find a way to change these pluripotent adult stem cells to become any cell of the body.

Finally, let’s look at why pluripotent stem cells are not the answer to all our health issues. As we have already seen, PSC taken from skin for example, cannot become new cells of the liver. This won’t help people with cardiovascular disease or degenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s. The answer lies in another type of adult stem cells — the ones from our bone marrow.

For years, we’ve used these successfully to treat leukemia and blood/bone cancers by transplanting them into patients. The newest research however, indicates there are some 150 million adult stem cells in our bone marrow and that as stem cells that can become any type of tissue, they represent the renewal system of the body.

So there you have it, everything you wanted to know about pluripotent stem cells. We’ve looked at what they, what they do and finally why they are not the answer to our health problems. All the latest research points to adult stem cells from our own bone marrow being the natural renewal system of our bodies, so all we need to do is get more of them to release into our bloodstream.

 

Learn How to Unleash the Awesome Power of Your Own Stem Cells at MyStemCellPower.com

How do cells in your body differentiate into other types of cells? Explore cell specialization featuring stem cells and their role in cell differentiation. For examples on types of specialized cells, see our “Specialized Cells” video here: https://youtu.be/wNe6RuK0FfA.

Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters

Our FREE resources:
GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html
Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html
Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics

Connect with us!
Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters
Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com
Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSister­s
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/

Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html

The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky’s certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky’s teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html

We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology

More detailed information about terms “multipotent” and “pluripotent” as well as stem cell therapy? Check out this excellent article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4104807/

This video mentions the amazing ability of induced pluripotent stem cells. Here is an article describing this technology in great detail: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782070/

We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube’s community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube’s policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language.

Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog

We have YouTube’s community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.

This stem cells animation explains about stem cell therapy.
http://shomusbiology.com/
Download the study materials here-
http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html
Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology-
Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store
Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help
Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching

We are social. Find us on different sites here-
Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com
Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/
Twitter – https://twitter.com/shomusbiology
SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology
Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198
LinkedIn – https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661
Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman
Thank you for watching

Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells (these are called pluripotent cells), but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

There are three accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans:

Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest),
Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction, and
Blood, which requires extraction through pheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor.

Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one’s own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures.

Highly plastic adult stem cells are routinely used in medical therapies, for example in bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.[1] Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.[2][3] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia.
Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page Animation source: Learn genetics, University of UTAH
Link- http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/scintro/
Video Rating: / 5

Enliven: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Regenerative Medicine is an Open access, peer reviewed international journal and it aims to publish different types of articles on emerging developments and supports current and upcoming research in the field of stem cell biology. This journal also allows articles on developmental biology and regenerative medicine.
This journal will support the budding scientists, scholars, academicians, researchers, and students by providing Open access platform for publishing their work.
This journal will follow the peer review policies and will bode Open access in having quality research output.
This journal combines the innovative scientific ideas and ways in stem cell biology, developmental biology, regenerative medicine and all other related disciplines to have an innovative output.

You may have heard of stem cells before, but there is a lot of mystery about what they actually … do. Why is this such a promising new field?

Click here to see more videos: http://www.m301.me/lifenoggin

Life Noggin is a weekly animated educational series. Whether it’s science, pop culture, history or art, we explore it all and have a ton of fun doing it.

Follow Us!

https://facebook.com/LifeNoggin
https://www.LifeNoggin

Life Noggin Team:
Animation & Designed by: http://www.krofl.com
Voiced by: http://youtube.com/patdoesit
Written by: https://www.youtube.com/coconutcab
Produced by: http://www.twitter.com/IanDokie

Sources:
Bone marrow transplant:
http://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/how-cancer-treated/bone-marrowstem-cell-transplantation/what-stem-cellbone-marrow-transplantation
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003009.htm
Gene Expression:
http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/gene-expression-14121669
http://www.pa.msu.edu/sciencet/ask_st/060293.html
Stem Cells:
http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics3.aspx
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell/

If you’ve always wondered about how bone marrow creates adult stem cells, then this is the article for you. We’ll look at the bone structure, the bone marrow and finally how adult stem cells are released. By the end, you’ll have a great understanding of just what happens with adult stem cells and our bone marrow.

First, let’s look at the bone structure. Many people believe the bones have very little blood circulation, but this is incorrect. There is voluminous blood flow and our bones contain both compact and spongy structure. The compact bone gives strength, while the spongy bone contains the marrow.

Next, let’s look at the bone marrow itself. Ask anyone what color bone marrow is and they’ll most likely say yellow. This is not completely true. Children have only red bone marrow, it’s only as we age that the red marrow is displaced by fat storing yellow marrow. Adults still have red marrow in the ribs, vertebrae, pelvis and skull. This red marrow is where our adult stem cells are located and as we get less red marrow as we age, this explains the drop in stem cell production. It is estimated however, that our bone marrow contains around 150 million adult stem cells.

Finally, let’s look at how bone marrow stem cells are released. Generally speaking in the body, cells divide through symmetrical division whereby a cell creates 2 identical cells which contain the original DNA. With the bone marrow however, asymmetrical division occurs. This is where a cell creates 2 different cells — 1 with copies of the DNA and the other with the original DNA. The copied DNA stem cell leaves the bone marrow, while the original DNA stem cell remains behind. This process is known as immortal strand hypothesis and ensures the number of adult stem cells always remains constant in the bone marrow.

So there you have it, a short guide explaining how the bone marrow creates adult stem cells. We’ve looked at bone structure, the bone marrow and finally how adult stem cells are released from the bone marrow. The most important things to remember are that this process is natural but is reduced with age and that supporting the release of adult stem cells from the bone marrow will not reduce their numbers.

For more information about Adult Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cell Supplements, please click to claim your free report.

Our body’s tissue is subject to a continuous regeneration process. The ability of adult stem cells to self-renew and to generate fast proliferating progenitor cells is an absolute prerequisite for tissue regeneration. Because the skin is an exceptionally highly regenerative tissue, the skin stem cell population represents the most important target for anti-ageing treatments. But, regardless of the regenerative power of stem cells, our skin loses its elasticity and firmness and forms wrinkles as we age. The regenerative potential of the stem cells apparently does not last forever; they too age. Ingredients, specifically designed to delay the depletion of their regeneration capacity, are a most promising solution to keeping skin looking youthful longer.

We are in need of novel in vitro models to test stem cell claims
Meanwhile a lot of research is being done on the mechanism of epidermal regeneration by stem cells embedded in specific niches located at the basal layer of the epidermis. In vitro test systems using epidermal stem cells have been established which allow claims for epidermal stem cell actives. Also dermal stem cells could be targeted by cosmetic ingredients. Fibroblasts, the prominent cell type in the dermis, are responsible for the continuous production of collagen and elastin. These proteins form the so called extracellular matrix, a three dimensional structure that confer elasticity and firmness to the skin. Age-related reduction in the formation of the extracellular matrix and environmental stress factors that lead to the breakdown of the existing matrix are key elements in the skin ageing process and directly involved in wrinkle formation. Controlling the regenerative potential of dermal stem cells would make it possible to correct loss of skin firmness and elasticity and to prevent wrinkles.

A novel cell culture assay to address dermal stem cell activity
Details of the dermal stem cell niche and marker expression remained scarce. But recently, a research group at the University of Toronto showed that the dermal papilla is a niche for dermal progenitor/stem cells. These cells were found to self-renew, to induce the formation of hair follicles and to migrate into the inter-follicular dermis where they proliferated and differentiated to fibroblast cells, able to regenerate the extracellular matrix. Other characteristics of these cells were the expression of a specific marker gene Sox2 and the tendency to grow in colonies in the form of spheres. Mibelle Biochemistry is now working on a human dermal papilla cell line as a new test system for the evaluation of active ingredients for stem cell vitalization potential. The established cell line was found to effectively form sphere-like colonies and the cells in those spheres were found to be uniformly Sox2-labelled, thus representing real dermal stem cells.

Working with human dermal stem cells
Progenitor cells isolated from the dermal papilla of excised human hair follicles could be maintained as a monolayer culture for at least 11 passages. At both passage 3 and passage 11 cells transferred into hanging drops formed 3D spheres, demonstrating that this important characteristic of progenitor cells was retained even after longer-term cultivation. In addition, immunofluorescent labelling of whole mount spheres showed positive staining for the Sox2, a proposed dermal stem cell marker. When cells dissociated from primary spheres were seeded back into classical cell culture dishes used for routine monolayer culture, numerous secondary spheres were formed. This indicates that once cells have formed primary spheres, they seem to retain a memory of the 3D progenitor phenotype, and preferentially re-form spheres where normally monolayer cultures would be expected to form.

Conclusion
A stable culture of progenitor cells isolated from the dermal papilla could be established. Even after 11 passages, cells retained the ability to both form 3D spheres and express the stem cell marker Sox2, suggesting a stem cell phenotype. Using this culture we can now effectively evaluate the influence of cosmetic actives on dermal stem cells. A variety of evaluations may be made, including both molecular (i.e. stem cell marker expression) and phenotypic (i.e. number of spheres, proportion of complete spheres, serial passaging of 3D spheres etc). This approach will provide us with detailed insights into the behaviour and activity of dermal stem cells in the presence of cosmetic actives, thus enabling the evaluation of their ability to maintain or restore their regenerative potential in the dermis. Protection and vitalization of human dermal stem cells is the next generation of stem cell cosmetics. Active ingredients with these properties offer a deep-seated rejuvenation of the skin, resulting in restoration of firmness and wrinkle reduction. In addition, such products could also be beneficial in wound healing and the treatment of stretch marks.