Posts Tagged ‘Development’

Yesterday I went to a seminar conducted by a local club wherein the topic of discussion was Indian economic model. The speakers were vociferous in criticizing Nehruvian model of economy. This is not the first time that I see somebody vomiting venom against Nehru. Many times Nehru has been criticized for his strategy of planning during the formative years of independence. Most importantly these criticisms come from highly educated people who have seen interest in the economic development of the nation. Their main point of criticism is based on the fundamental incongruence of the high growth rate of the globalized economic model post 1991 and the low growth rate of 1960s controlled economy. In this short essay I am not going to compare the benefits or short comings of the two economic models; because comparisons as they say always tend to be odious. I will only point to some subtle points which might have influenced the planning process during the post independence period.

When India gained freedom the immediate consideration of our leaders was to restructure a broken economy. The major problems that they had faced were:-
1. lack of capital
2. lack of financial institutions
3. lack of infrastructure
4. lack of secondary (industry) or tertiary(service) sector and hence over dependence on primary

(agricultural) sector

At that time there were two models of development open for the policy makers. The first one is the famous Gandhian model of development which was aimed at minimization of wants to meet the lesser supply and second was the Nehruvian model which was aimed at the maximization of supplies to meet the increasing wants of people. You can see the diametrical opposition between these two models of development. Today, we may laugh at the Gandhian model for its naivety but at that point of time it was a major theoretical concept. However the untimely demise of Gandhi, had put an end to his concept of development and Nehruvian model remained the only alternate available for the policy makers. Here we need to consider the lower level of maturity and low experience of our policy makers, including Nehru, because it was the first time they were doing these kind of things and the enthusiasm had over powered any pragmatic thinking for an alternate, though there were small voices of left blocks could be heard here and there. Now, we would see what might have influenced Nehru’s conception of the economic plan which later came to be known as mixed economy.

We will discuss why this model is called a mixed economic model later; we will first see what prepared for the ground work of this model. At that time two models were prevalent in the world:
1. capitalist economy: characterized by free economic forces
2. communist economy: state controlled economy
There was enormous international pressure on Nehru to adopt any of these two models. But he was aware of the pros and cons of these two models.

a. why India could not have adopted a capitalist model:-
Indian market was not evolved at that time. There was lack of capitals. If privatization were free then it would have two serious consequences:
i. there would have been monopoly of a few private houses which would have ked to heavy

inflation
ii. Secondly, there would have been complete neglect of heavy enterprises.
The reason for this was, infrastructure and heavy industrial projects have high gestation periods that means the profit would come only after a couple of decades. So the private players would not be expected to invest money on such kind of projects. This would have led India to a country with no infrastructure at all. So the only alternate left was state investment in such heavy projects. So capitalist economic model with dependence on market was struck down.

b. Why India could not have adopted a communist model?

The ardent leftist critics of Nehru say why Nehru did not make build India on the lines of Russia. I think the following factors would have prevented Nehru from adopting a strict communist pattern of economic model.

i. Communism as an ideology lies in revolution. Here the economic reforms are preceded by a social revolution that breaks up the social order and ushers a new model. So basically, such a model is endogenous that is change from within. But an exogenous application of communist ethos would result in mere redistribution of wealth but won’t usher a revolutionary life (: said by Che Guevara). One cannot have true communist economy through policy making. USSR and China were successful in having a communist economy because they were followed by a revolution and hence total usurpation of the existing economy by the communist philosophy. In 1950s India and for that matter Nehru could not have approved of a social revolution through strict communist planning or otherwise. So a strict communist economy was out of question.

ii. Secondly, Nehru also wanted a balanced growth of market. State intervention in the heavy projects were necessary because of lack of capital but agriculture and service sectors did not need heavy gestation so private investment was possible. Hence these sectors remained on private control. And heavy industries were under state control. Some criticize Nehru of neglecting agriculture. Perhaps their point of criticism is towards the Congressional inability to implement concept of co-operative farming. Nehru did talked about co-operative farming, but it did not materialize because of political reasons. Nehru because of his astounding majority in the Loksabha could have his will carried away with little opposition, but he did not think it was prudent to start a political crisis during the early years of polity. As an alternate to the co-operative farming he introduced the concept of community development project, which aimed at wholesome development of the rural India.

So India adopted a model of economy which had place for both the private player and the state. It was like a variable sum approach to power wherein no body holds power in exclusion of the other party, though some may say that the model favoured the public sectors or state controlled enterprises more. This is called mixed economic model because of the participation of both private sector as the provider of consumer goods and the public sector as the commanding heights of economy dictating the infrastructural development of the country.

Now before having a conclusion about the pros and cons of Nehruvian model which is called Fabian socialism we can put our attention to two brief economic models. They are:
a. redistribution first
b. production first

Redistribution first has similarity with communist economic models. Here the wealth is first redistributed among the various sections and after that the development and progress is though of. So the cost of development, as in high capital investment, is borne by both the present generation and the future generation. On the other hand the production first model aims at increasing the production first and then thinking about redistribution of the production among the people. In this case the pressure of high capital investment has to be born by the present generation. Nehru as an ideological policy adopted the second one, perhaps influenced by the age old Indian tradition of paternal care towards the children.

Many criticize Nehru that this ideology means not eradicating the economic inequality. Nehru’s logic in this case was also equally appreciative. According to his model, a slight degree of inequality was acceptable for the rapid development. And secondly, if redistribution was done first, then the poor who had been the victim of poverty would have squandered their wealth on goods of immediate gratification. This would not have helped for saving of the country.

So as an ideological model the mixed economic model was the best suited model at that point of time. Even though the evil repercussions of the model was seen in the late 198s in terms of heavy credit crunch, but it was more because of misuse than the model itself. Besides we should not forget the benefits of this model which has manifested in SAIL, GAIL, BHEL, IITs, RECs, Dams, Ports and other infrastructural marvels and also green revolution. So before criticizing Nehruvian model one has to understand the temporal dimensions of his policies also.

Mitrabhanu Mahapatra works as a free lance writer-cum-photographer. He is presently running a web site called incubation360 which is a repository of very high quality articles on contemporary issues. Mitrabhanu has good depth of knowledge in the areas of sociology and evolution of society. His point of analysis of society is through a systems approach with hints of organized anarchy model. He also takes interest in philosophical writings which try to find out the relationship between reliigon-spirituality and science. You can get to know more about him and his articles in the link: http://www.incubation360.com

In today’s competitive job market, employers are seeking to hire graduates that are highly specialized and well trained. You can’t afford to waste your time with an education that wont help you get the job you want. At Centennial College, all our programs are geared for success.

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Program Overview :
From Sesame Street to Dora the Explorer, childrens entertainment is a multi-billion dollar industry around the world.

The Childrens Entertainment: Writing, Production and Management program is a new and one-of-a-kind post-graduate program that will prepare you for a career as a highly-skilled childrens content producer. You will learn to create a wide range of entertainment products film, TV, books, education products, games, and interactive media for the rapidly growing childrens market. Centennial College prepares students in Child Development Courses and Child Entertainers to carve a future.

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* Program admission session including portfolio and writing assessment will be required.

Author Jason writes here about Child Development Courses and Child Entertainers offered at Centennial College. Since childhood is very important, Centennial prepares professionals to tackle it. Jason also writes the admission requirements.

Leadership, what is it and what is the difference between being a manager and being a leader?. Definitions of leadership, there is not a single definition that everyone agrees on. Manfred Kets de Vries, a professor at INSEAD, says that leadership is a set of characteristics, behaviour patterns, personality attributes that makes certain individuals more effective in achieving a set goal or objective.


Another way of describing leadership is to say that, to get the best out of people, individuals, teams, organisations, they need to be led, guided, persuaded, motivated, inspired, to be committed, to do their best, to work together to achieve a common objective. This, rather than the pure management approach of being told, directed, ordered, and treated as subordinates.


True leaders are recognised as being the leader, and their followers accept that they need to be guided by that leader, but they do not feel that they are mere subordinates. A good example is the captain of a sports team – hockey, baseball, netball, cricket, soccer, football, athletics – these are individuals who have an individual role to play, yet find time and ways to motivate and encourage others to do their best, to use their own individual skills, knowledge and experience (scoring goals, defending, winning races, hitting home runs) whilst at the same time working together as a member of the team to achieve team objectives.


There are other ways of defining leadership, managers perform transactions, and leaders bring about transformations.


The transactional manager influences others by appealing to self-interest, primarily through the exchange of rewards and services. The relationship between this type of manager and the follower is seen as a series of rational exchanges that enable each to reach their own goals. Transactional managers supply all the ideas and use rewards as their primary source of power. Followers comply with the leader when it’s in their own interest – the relationship continues as long as the reward is desirable to the follower, and both the manager and the follower see the exchange as a way of achieving their own ends.


The transformational leader inspires followers to not only perform as expected, but to exceed expectations – transformational leaders motivate followers to work for goals that go beyond immediate self-interest, where what is right and good becomes important – these leaders transform the needs, values, preferences and aspirations of followers. They do this so that the interests of the wider group replaces the self-interest of individuals within that group.


It’s interesting that research has shown that the way women leaders describe how they behave, lead, is in line with the transformational style, whereas most male leaders when describing themselves use words and phrases that describe the transactional style. There are exceptions of course, and in some situations the leader can by viewed differently by different groups. Many people in the UK would not describe Margaret Thatcher as transformational in style, but more likely they would use words such as dictatorial, domineering, riding roughshod over opponents, yet others, in her close team for example, describe her as charismatic, motivational, inspirational, kind, supportive.


We can see from this look at Leadership that there are different ways of describing what a leader does, and how, at least in some ways, this is different to how a manager behaves. Individuals recognised as leaders makes it obvious that there are great differences in the way in which certain leaders behave. On the surface there are great differences between the leadership style of Prime Minister Thatcher, and that of the Indian industrialist Rajiv Bajaj. Yet both are widely acknowledged as highly successful leaders. The common factor, it seems, is that all are able to persuade others to follow them, in order to achieve success in their particular field. They all have something that brings diverse people together, to work as a team, to aim for and work hard to achieve a common objective. It is, perhaps, a special talent, or characteristic, or personality trait, or set of circumstances that they find themselves in, or perhaps a combination of all of these. Perhaps leaders are born with this ability, perhaps it is something that can be, or has to be, learned.

CJ Williams is a tutor and management consultant currently working with Brighton School of Business and Management in the UK, specialising in courses taught via distance learning. The writer, CJ Williams, can be contacted at cjwilliams@brightonsbm.com or via www.brightonsbm.com

Music is powerful and persuasive. It touches one’s emotion, motivation, creativity and relaxation. It has the soothing effect that can calm our mental nerves. It inspires you to do something new and productive. It gives you ideas. It lulls you to sleep. The list is definitely endless.

Music is many things. It makes us happy, annoyed, melancholic, afraid and mad. Music is also for every one. It invades almost anything and everything. Different milieus have their own music to recollect. Various races and continents also enjoy distinctive music. Young and old alike take pleasure in it.

In every stages of life there will always be music for it is perpetual. In fact, there are unique types of music that caters to specific group of individuals. Rock and metal music cater to hyperactive music enthusiasts. Love, acoustic and pop songs blend well with lovers and emotional persons. For kids there is the children’s music.

Children’s music can give kids a magical experience. They can play roles with it. For a moment, they can be a pretty princess with a castle or a dashing knight in shining armor. They can simultaneously play musical instruments. They can dance and sing.

Music is entertaining most especially to children. Thus, even at the very young age they must be exposed to music. By doing so, kids develop their sense of adventure and discovery.

Aside from that, they can be knowledgeable about children’s music lyrics. They can also develop the basic languages.

Children’s music can also be treated as therapy. Application of children’s music can treat some physiological and psychosocial elements of illness. Treatment is aimed for the acquisition of non-musical behavior by virtue of systematic musical methods.

Studies have proven that children with developmental delays and learning disabilities like Down’s syndrome respond to music. Thus, exposure to music can boost response and expression. As a result, individual expressions and talents like singing and dancing can be discovered.

Children’s music treats developmental delays and learning disabilities by drawing out movements. The latter develops self-awareness which can easily be manifested. Examples of these movements are gripping the beater, tapping a triangle, playing cymbals and drums and the likes.

The relationship between children’s music and movement cannot be overemphasized. The rhythm of music creates the ideal stimulus that results to coordinated movements. These movements lead to repetition which is a mode of child learning.

Aside from entertainment and therapy, children’s music is also a special kind of education. It develops the cognitive skills of children. Exposure to music stimulates learning about colors, numbers, shapes and parts of the body. As a consequence, though may not be the primary goal, it increases the child’s intelligence.

Stimulation of cognitive abilities leads to multi-sensory development. The latter contributes to the ability of a child to retail information and be attentive to detail. As a result, the child becomes confident and clever.

Children’s music can also develop the child’s social skills. Usually, musical experiences are done in groups. Participants can sing in unison or one after the other. With this process, every one is encouraged to participate thus participants eventually become closer.

Children’s music can be so powerful that it can develop both the intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of a child. It simultaneously augments functional abilities at the same time the expressive and creative capacities of a child.

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Stan Kurkovsky is a Professor of Computer Science at Central Connecticut State University. His research interests are in the areas of mobile and pervasive computing, software engineering, and computer science education. He has published over 70 peer-reviewed conference papers and journal articles. Dr. Kurkovsky has been serving as the principal investigator on a number of NSF and industry grants with a total funding in excess of two million dollars. He is currently serving as the PI on an NSF TUES/CCLI grant “Using Mobile Game Development to Improve Student Learning and Satisfaction in Introductory Computer Science Courses,” which is directly related to this talk.

Presentation on 5 out of 10 of the articles used in the project.
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Summer Weaver Child Development Research Articles Presentation

While it is of course true that everyone has an individual rate of learning, there are certain standard child development stages that every child should follow in general sequence. Some children may reach certain stages before other children, but this does not necessarily mean that the child who is “behind” is doing anything wrong. They must conquer one stage before moving on to the next, and there are often many stages happening at the same time. Some involve cognitive development, others physical or emotional. If you find yourself comparing your child to the neighbor’s child, stop comparing strengths to weaknesses and vice versa. While developmental stages are a guideline to see how you child is fairing, it certainly is not an exact representation for everyone. By reading child development articles, you can learn how you can affect the growth and development of your child.

By knowing and understanding child development stages, parents can get an idea of what they can expect out of their children at certain ages. It is obvious that a two-year-old will not be able to ride a bike, but these stages are much more subtle than that. Understanding these stages can also eliminate much of the guesswork and aggravation out of parenting. It can be fun to observe your child moving from one stage to the next.

An example of what physical development stages in babies look like is as follows: first infants will learn how to lift their head while lying face down. Then they will be able to support their own weight on the arms. Next they will learn to roll over, and soon to follow they will be able to roll into a sitting position. After that, babies learn how to roll into a squat position, and from this position they learn how to crawl. Child development stages continue in this way for many more years. The sequence is standard, but the normal ages at which different children will be able to accomplish these feats differ by a few months. This is a significant amount of time when the child has only been alive for under a year.

As a parent, it is important that you educate yourself about child development stages by reading child development articles. Parenthood is difficult enough without having to guess about where your child is in his or her personal development. Lingual, emotional and other forms of development follow similar sequences, and by reading child development articles, you can learn how you can encourage your child’s development and continue in helping them grow and learn.

Read more Child Development Articles.

French cuisine evolved through a variety of interesting incidents. French cooking is popular for royal culinary variations and aesthetic novelty of cooking elements used.

The French cooking style chiefly advanced during te time of rapid political transformations, with loads of the unique preparations like Bouef Bourguignon – a beef dish in red wine. The French are always serious about cooking because they deem it an art, that can be equated at par with any other art form on Earth. That is why many of the French dishes are seasoned a lot.

Today we see that French cooking involves lots of presentation and preparation, which evolved during the medieval times. The sauces were much more thicker than the ones served in the present times. Because it involved lots of seasonings, which were prepared from heavy creams and butters. Also the usage of mustard in meat preparations gained prominence during this time.

During the 19th century, sauces became the integral part of French cuisine. And By the early 20th century the French cuisine have evolved into 5 stations, which were mainly known as “brigade system”. These stations were roasted grilled and fried food, cold dishes, soups, vegetables, and pastries.

The French dishes are segmented on the lines of their area of origins. Each region in France has its own set of signature dishes. Like the coastal areas are well known for their seafoods, which are prepared using herrings, sole, scallops, and sea bass. Similarly Normandy is famous for “moules a la creme Normande”. And Brittany is famous for lobster,.mussels and crayfish preparations. The cauliflower thickened stews are specialty of Northern France, which are assorted with rich artichoke side-dishes. You can also enjoy some delicious salads like “Salade Niroise,”. This Cote d’ Azuran salad is prepared using black olives, various other ingredients with tuna.

The French egg recipes are favored and savored for their creative excellence. This can be verified from simple egg omelet that is prepared using some herbs and spices.

French desserts are world famous for their creative and culinary excellence. Crepe is one such pancake which is prepared from wheat flour with fillings and toppings made from berries, cinnamon, nuts, bananas, jellies, ice cream, chocolate sauce, maple syrup, and jams to soft fruits and powdered sugar. You can also enjoy other popular French desserts such as choux a lacreme, tarts, chocolate mousse, and pastries. .

For additional information on some awesome french recipes please visit french recipe. You can also take a peek at german recipe by clicking german recipes

Video on Article 10 of the “African Youth Charter” developed in partnership by UNESCO and the African Union.

Your State must encourage youth organizations to implement youth programmes. You have the right to develop freely in all social, economic, political and cultural spheres.

The African Youth Charter is YOUR Charter!

Copyright UNESCO and African Union
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Uncovering the missing secrets of Magnetism

Done, BOOK uploaded, 110 pages

SECOND EDITION

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The first and only accurate model of magnetism and the missing secrets of electromagnetism and the geometry of light!

Additionally the correct model of the atom proven by logic, evidence, and the works of Tesla, Maxwell, Heaviside, CP Steinmetz and others.

This 94 page article will reveal more to you about the nature of the cosmos, the atomic model, the geometry of magnetism and light than you have ever imagined possible, and which no one until now has or can deliver.

This article is meant to be a deep but clear primer to reverse the mass of ignorance and set the reader down the correct road regarding magnetism and paint its clear, logical, lucid, and rational picture. Its editions will expand over time.
While this work will expand over time, I must state that if you cannot explain it simply then you do not really understand something. There are many great non-fiction books on many subjects, however all of them could be removed of superfluous nonsense and reduced by at least 80%, such was the premise for this article; time in life in short, and reading ten pages to find one morsel of truth and helpful insight, I have always found infuriating. Nothing is more hubristic than taking 100 pages to say something that can easily be said in 10. I state outright that for the very first time in history, I will lucidly, rationally, logically, with reason and evidence present you with the genuine model of magnetism, what it is, then what it really is (rather is not in principle but in attribute), how it moves, how it operates, with geometry, angles, charge, and unique specificity with parallel clarity.
Additionally regarding magnetism, I will supply you with numerous diagrams showing orientation, movements, pressures, specific angles, and countless first-time revelations about magnetism that will paint a lucid coherent picture, like a laser, burning thru accretions of ignorance about magnetism, to what magnetism really is, its relationship to the other 3 forces, what induces what, what terminates into what and as what. Lastly, and uniquely, I will present you with the correct nature of light, never before understood, formerly only half-grasped, and finally a chart showing force unification of gravity, magnetism, dielectricity, and electricity that is so simple, so logical, so undeniable, that even a 15 year old can grasp it; within which is included the equation (G.U.T.) behind all force unification.

10+ years of intense magnetism research, this 35 page article with much evidence, diagrams, logic and proofs will astound you!

This extremely condensed article will stun you with information both logical, sound, proven, and amazing. You will not be disappointed.

PREORDER by Paypal for only .00 US to email webmaster@kathodos.com

article in PDF format
Due out July 1 this year!

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ISBN 0-9712541-8-4
copyright 6-15-2014
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Comprehensive coverage of a talk and panel debate at the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) hosted by Article 25 exploring the contribution of the built environment to international development.

Chair – Jack Pringle (Trustee, Article 25)
Main Speaker – Tom Gunner (Government Affairs Spokesman, UKspace)

Panelists
– David Sanderson (Director, CENDEP)
– Graham Saunders (Head of Shelter, IFRC)
– Camillo Boano (Lecturer, Development Planning Unit, UCL)
– John Norton (President, Development Workshop)

Filmed and edited by Tom Christian, Poetic Licence Films
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