Posts Tagged ‘Early’

Yesterday I went to a seminar conducted by a local club wherein the topic of discussion was Indian economic model. The speakers were vociferous in criticizing Nehruvian model of economy. This is not the first time that I see somebody vomiting venom against Nehru. Many times Nehru has been criticized for his strategy of planning during the formative years of independence. Most importantly these criticisms come from highly educated people who have seen interest in the economic development of the nation. Their main point of criticism is based on the fundamental incongruence of the high growth rate of the globalized economic model post 1991 and the low growth rate of 1960s controlled economy. In this short essay I am not going to compare the benefits or short comings of the two economic models; because comparisons as they say always tend to be odious. I will only point to some subtle points which might have influenced the planning process during the post independence period.

When India gained freedom the immediate consideration of our leaders was to restructure a broken economy. The major problems that they had faced were:-
1. lack of capital
2. lack of financial institutions
3. lack of infrastructure
4. lack of secondary (industry) or tertiary(service) sector and hence over dependence on primary

(agricultural) sector

At that time there were two models of development open for the policy makers. The first one is the famous Gandhian model of development which was aimed at minimization of wants to meet the lesser supply and second was the Nehruvian model which was aimed at the maximization of supplies to meet the increasing wants of people. You can see the diametrical opposition between these two models of development. Today, we may laugh at the Gandhian model for its naivety but at that point of time it was a major theoretical concept. However the untimely demise of Gandhi, had put an end to his concept of development and Nehruvian model remained the only alternate available for the policy makers. Here we need to consider the lower level of maturity and low experience of our policy makers, including Nehru, because it was the first time they were doing these kind of things and the enthusiasm had over powered any pragmatic thinking for an alternate, though there were small voices of left blocks could be heard here and there. Now, we would see what might have influenced Nehru’s conception of the economic plan which later came to be known as mixed economy.

We will discuss why this model is called a mixed economic model later; we will first see what prepared for the ground work of this model. At that time two models were prevalent in the world:
1. capitalist economy: characterized by free economic forces
2. communist economy: state controlled economy
There was enormous international pressure on Nehru to adopt any of these two models. But he was aware of the pros and cons of these two models.

a. why India could not have adopted a capitalist model:-
Indian market was not evolved at that time. There was lack of capitals. If privatization were free then it would have two serious consequences:
i. there would have been monopoly of a few private houses which would have ked to heavy

inflation
ii. Secondly, there would have been complete neglect of heavy enterprises.
The reason for this was, infrastructure and heavy industrial projects have high gestation periods that means the profit would come only after a couple of decades. So the private players would not be expected to invest money on such kind of projects. This would have led India to a country with no infrastructure at all. So the only alternate left was state investment in such heavy projects. So capitalist economic model with dependence on market was struck down.

b. Why India could not have adopted a communist model?

The ardent leftist critics of Nehru say why Nehru did not make build India on the lines of Russia. I think the following factors would have prevented Nehru from adopting a strict communist pattern of economic model.

i. Communism as an ideology lies in revolution. Here the economic reforms are preceded by a social revolution that breaks up the social order and ushers a new model. So basically, such a model is endogenous that is change from within. But an exogenous application of communist ethos would result in mere redistribution of wealth but won’t usher a revolutionary life (: said by Che Guevara). One cannot have true communist economy through policy making. USSR and China were successful in having a communist economy because they were followed by a revolution and hence total usurpation of the existing economy by the communist philosophy. In 1950s India and for that matter Nehru could not have approved of a social revolution through strict communist planning or otherwise. So a strict communist economy was out of question.

ii. Secondly, Nehru also wanted a balanced growth of market. State intervention in the heavy projects were necessary because of lack of capital but agriculture and service sectors did not need heavy gestation so private investment was possible. Hence these sectors remained on private control. And heavy industries were under state control. Some criticize Nehru of neglecting agriculture. Perhaps their point of criticism is towards the Congressional inability to implement concept of co-operative farming. Nehru did talked about co-operative farming, but it did not materialize because of political reasons. Nehru because of his astounding majority in the Loksabha could have his will carried away with little opposition, but he did not think it was prudent to start a political crisis during the early years of polity. As an alternate to the co-operative farming he introduced the concept of community development project, which aimed at wholesome development of the rural India.

So India adopted a model of economy which had place for both the private player and the state. It was like a variable sum approach to power wherein no body holds power in exclusion of the other party, though some may say that the model favoured the public sectors or state controlled enterprises more. This is called mixed economic model because of the participation of both private sector as the provider of consumer goods and the public sector as the commanding heights of economy dictating the infrastructural development of the country.

Now before having a conclusion about the pros and cons of Nehruvian model which is called Fabian socialism we can put our attention to two brief economic models. They are:
a. redistribution first
b. production first

Redistribution first has similarity with communist economic models. Here the wealth is first redistributed among the various sections and after that the development and progress is though of. So the cost of development, as in high capital investment, is borne by both the present generation and the future generation. On the other hand the production first model aims at increasing the production first and then thinking about redistribution of the production among the people. In this case the pressure of high capital investment has to be born by the present generation. Nehru as an ideological policy adopted the second one, perhaps influenced by the age old Indian tradition of paternal care towards the children.

Many criticize Nehru that this ideology means not eradicating the economic inequality. Nehru’s logic in this case was also equally appreciative. According to his model, a slight degree of inequality was acceptable for the rapid development. And secondly, if redistribution was done first, then the poor who had been the victim of poverty would have squandered their wealth on goods of immediate gratification. This would not have helped for saving of the country.

So as an ideological model the mixed economic model was the best suited model at that point of time. Even though the evil repercussions of the model was seen in the late 198s in terms of heavy credit crunch, but it was more because of misuse than the model itself. Besides we should not forget the benefits of this model which has manifested in SAIL, GAIL, BHEL, IITs, RECs, Dams, Ports and other infrastructural marvels and also green revolution. So before criticizing Nehruvian model one has to understand the temporal dimensions of his policies also.

Mitrabhanu Mahapatra works as a free lance writer-cum-photographer. He is presently running a web site called incubation360 which is a repository of very high quality articles on contemporary issues. Mitrabhanu has good depth of knowledge in the areas of sociology and evolution of society. His point of analysis of society is through a systems approach with hints of organized anarchy model. He also takes interest in philosophical writings which try to find out the relationship between reliigon-spirituality and science. You can get to know more about him and his articles in the link: http://www.incubation360.com

When you think about retirement is your exit strategy clear? The best time to plan is now! Early retirement planning is essential if you’re not planning to work forever. The biggest question about early retirement planning is what to invest in? Most companies have some variety of retirement benefits to give to their employees. I’m sure your familiar with them, (401(k), 403(b), Roth-IRA, Annuities, etc), you’ve heard of them all. Those are great ways to fund your retirement if you plan on working for the next 30 years, but if you’re like me you want to get out of there ASAP start a business. I guess my real question to you as the reader would be, how soon are you looking to retire, 30 years or the next 6 months? A 401 (k) is a great retirement plan, but you have to work years to reap the benefits and there is no sure guarantee that you will see you’re a full return on investment. Can you imagine being 65 years old getting ready to retire when you look at your 401(k) account only to see that it lost half its value over night, what are you going to do? It’s sad because this is currently going today?

The only way to survive in this economy is being in the right position, financially speaking. That same money that you would invest into a 401(k) (someone else company), you could invest into your own business. Many are scared to invest in a business because they see it as risky, and see a 401 (k) or the like as the safer route. I am certainly one to say there is more safety in investing in a 401 (k) then starting a business. If you are looking to go the safe route then you should invest in a 401 (k), but if you’re looking to get rich and retire early start a business.

Let’s be clear, starting a business does not mean you’re going to get rich over night. If that’s how your thinking then you need to change your mentally. In business there risk that need to be addressed, issues that need to be resolved, goals that must be accomplished. One who is going into business should be willing to go all out for the success of the business. An ideal business would be one that requires less work as the business that grows exponentially. This helps to achieve what is called passive income, which means that you no longer have to physically work to generate income. Right now there are 21 year old millionaires out there who are set for the rest of their lives because of a business they started or some work that they did. Who needs to work for 8 hours a day for 30 years to make a set salary when you have the options to start a business and build massive income?

Being that we are in the information age the internet has brought the possibility of owning a business that’s completely based online. This eliminates overhead and employee cost that come with a traditional business. What this means for you is bigger profits on your bottom line. So imagine being able to generate thousands of dollars from an online business doing way less work then you would at your normal 8 hour a day job. Would you still be so willing to work 30 years on a job and invest in a 401 (k), or are you looking to create wealth with an online business and finally fire your boss? I think the choice is pretty clear and quite obvious, but it is on you to make the decision.

Hello, my name is Jabril Jones and my goal is to show others how to create wealth. Feel free to contact me.

Don’t rely on routine tests alone to protect you from cancer. It’s just as important to listen to your body and notice anything that’s different, odd, or unexplainable.

Here are some signs that are commonly overlooked:
1. Wheezing or shortness of breath
One of the first signs many lung cancer patients remember noticing is the inability to catch their breath.

2. Chronic cough or chest pain
Several types of cancer, including leukemia and lung tumors, can cause symptoms that mimic a bad cough or bronchitis. Some lung cancer patients report chest pain that extends up into the shoulder or down the arm.

3. Frequent fevers or infections
These can be signs of leukemia, a cancer of the blood cells that starts in the bone marrow. Leukemia causes the marrow to produce abnormal white blood cells, sapping your body’s infection-fighting capabilities.

4. Difficulty swallowing
Trouble swallowing is most commonly associated with esophageal or throat cancer, and is sometimes one of the first signs of lung cancer, too.

5. Swollen lymph nodes or lumps on the neck, underarm, or groin
Enlarged lymph nodes indicate changes in the lymphatic system, which can be a sign of cancer.

6. Excessive bruising or bleeding that doesn’t stop
This symptom usually suggests something abnormal happening with the platelets and red blood cells, which can be a sign of leukemia. Over time, leukemia cells crowd out red blood cells and platelets, impairing your blood’s ability to carry oxygen and clot.

7. Weakness and fatigue
Generalized fatigue and weakness is a symptom of so many different kinds of cancer that you’ll need to look at it in combination with other symptoms. But any time you feel exhausted without explanation and it doesn’t respond to getting more sleep, talk to your doctor.

8. Bloating or abdominal weight gain
Women diagnosed with ovarian cancer overwhelmingly report unexplained abdominal bloating that came on fairly suddenly and continued on and off over a long period of time.

9. Feeling full and unable to eat
This is another tip-off to ovarian cancer; women say they have no appetite and can’t eat, even when they haven’t eaten for some time.

10. Pelvic or abdominal pain
Pain and cramping in the pelvis and abdomen can go hand in hand with the bloating that often signals ovarian cancer. Leukemia can also cause abdominal pain resulting from an enlarged spleen.

11. Rectal bleeding or blood in stool
This is a common result of diagnosing colorectal cancer. Blood in the toilet alone is reason to call your doctor and schedule a colonoscopy.

12. Unexplained weight loss
Weight loss is an early sign of colon and other digestive cancers; it’s also a sign of cancer that’s spread to the liver, affecting your appetite and the ability of your body to rid itself of wastes.

13. Upset stomach or stomachache
Stomach cramps or frequent upset stomachs may indicate colorectal cancer.

14. A red, sore, or swollen breast
These symptoms can indicate inflammatory breast cancer. Call your doctor about any unexplained changes to your breasts.

15. Nipple changes
One of the most common changes women remember noticing before being diagnosed with breast cancer is a nipple that began to appear flattened, inverted, or turned sideways.

16. Unusually heavy or painful periods or bleeding between periods
Many women report this as the tip-off to endometrial or uterine cancer. Ask for a transvaginal ultrasound if you suspect something more than routine heavy periods.

17. Swelling of facial features
Some patients with lung cancer report noticing puffiness, swelling, or redness in the face. Small cell lung tumors commonly block blood vessels in the chest, preventing blood from flowing freely from your head and face.

18. A sore or skin lump that doesn’t heal, becomes crusty, or bleeds easily
Familiarize yourself with the different types of skin cancer —melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma — and be vigilant about checking skin all over your body for odd-looking growths or spots.
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Please note: Any information presented in this article is for educational research ONLY. This particular article and author is not making any recommendations and is not giving any personal medical advice in the following material.

On a recent interview, Dr. Leonard Coldwell claimed that ‘all cancer’ along with ‘all other kinds of immune diseases’ are based on emotional and mental stress and can be cured in less than 12 weeks through holistic cancer remedies. In addition, Dr. Coldwell names several cancer-curing treatments that are being suppressed by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, including sodium bicarbonate, apricot kernels, oxygen therapy, rife machines and colloidal silver.

If you are wondering why there is no “official” cure for cancer, then try tracing the revenue cancer takes in each year. Cancer is a billion a year industry, while cancer protection and the early intervention of cancer brings in an additional 2 billion each year.

John D. RockefellerWhen you investigate the roots of the medical and pharmaceutical industries, you will find the name of John D. Rockefeller.

Dr. Coldwell stated, “The medical curriculum was created by John D. Rockefeller over 100 years ago when he produced chemicals and didn’t know how to sell those chemicals. He produced sales people and called them MD’s. He produced the entire curriculum for the education of medical doctors. Rockefeller made sure that the medical doctor never learned how to cure. A medical doctor has about 1 hour of education in diet and nutritional health and no knowledge on healing. They study pathology which is the study of decay and death. They study the chemical intervention with symptoms; they don’t study healing, curing or looking for the root cause of disease. The only cause for any kind of disease is the lack of energy and that’s mainly caused by physical or emotional stress.”
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Does the early bird really get the worm?
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Further Reading–

Sleeping and Grades:
http://www.aasmnet.org/articles.aspx?id=2328

Personality Traits:
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/wired-success/201208/early-risers-are-happier-healthier-and-more-productive-night-owls

Intelligence:
http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/opinion/analysis/smart-people-sleep-late-82486792.html

Genetics:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105381191300921X

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18802415

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ana.23636/abstract;jsessionid=3787FB4A72846B94541734231F04B16A.f01t01

Cortisol:
http://www.epjournal.net/articles/night-owl-women-are-similar-to-men-in-their-relationship-orientation-risk-taking-propensities-and-cortisol-levels-implications-for-the-adaptive-significance-and-evolution-of-eveningness/getpdf.php?file=EP1201130147.pdf

Teens:
http://articles.latimes.com/2010/feb/17/science/la-sci-students17-2010feb17

Long term attention:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19390047
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This video explains how to find the best online sources when researching science topics for essays or just general interest. Steve explains which magazines and journals are the best for non-scientists to use.
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