Posts Tagged ‘Happen’

An earthquake, the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust, is measured with a seismometer. An earthquake with magnitude 3 or lower is mostly imperceptible while magnitude 7 can cause serious damage over large areas. The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and sometimes volcanic activity. In contrast, earthquakes are caused by volcanic activity, landslides, and nuclear tests.

 

Seismic waves which carry with them an enormous amount of energy travel through the Earth’s crust. The earthquake which seismic waves cause will vary in strength and duration. This depends on the strength of the seismic waves. Let’s discover how earthquakes happen.

 

The earth is divided into an inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The earth’s surface is the layer called the crust which is divided into many segments called plates.

 

The crust is broken into plates.

 

Many earthquakes take place along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates which are moved around by the motion of a deeper part of the mantle.

 

Rock layers are forced upwards creating mountains at the place of plates’ collision.

 

Where plates diverge, lava emerges from the mantle and cools to form new sections of crust.

 

Two plates move into each other or slide past each other.

 

Point of friction

 

The point within the earth where an earthquake rupture starts is called the hypocenter.

 

Primary waves (longitudinal or compressional waves) and S-waves (transverse or shear waves)

 

Surface waves radiable outwards from the epicenter which is the point directly above it on the surface of the Earth.

 

Particle motion

 

Love waves, named after British mathematician A.E.H Love, is a surface wave having a horizontal motion that is transverse to the direction the wave is traveling.

 

The largest earthquake with 9.5 magnitude occurred on 22 May 1960. Its epicenter was near Canete, Chile. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, one of the largest recorded earthquakes which have all been megathrust earthquakes, is one of the deadliest earthquakes in history. In January 2010, the worst 7.0 magnitude earthquake in two centuries struck less than ten miles from the Caribbean city of Port-au-Prices, Haiti, causing damages to Haitian.

 

 

Related links:

Surviving Earthquakes — the Basics

Earthquakes – Five Myths

What are Earthquakes ?

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SOURCES

Megathrust Quake
– http://www.dailymail.co.uk/video/news/video-1002450/Pacific-Northwest-long-overdue-megathrust-earthquake-tsunami.html
– http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2015/07/kathryn_schulz_s_new_yorker_story_on_pacific_northwest_earthquake_geologists.html
– http://www.earthmagazine.org/article/pacific-northwest-earthquake-threat-heightened
– http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/07/20/the-really-big-one

Yellowstone Supervolcano
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellowstone_Caldera
– http://www.yellowstonepark.com/supervolcano-eruptions/
– http://www.livescience.com/20714-yellowstone-supervolcano-eruption.html
– http://www.express.co.uk/news/science/632054/Yellowstone-about-to-blow-1-in-10-chance-super-volcano-will-kill-millions
– http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3189619/What-happen-Yellowstone-s-supervolcano-erupted-Experts-warn-90-000-immediate-deaths-nuclear-winter-US.html
– http://www.rense.com/general63/yellowstonesslumbering.htm

Hayward Fault Zone
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayward_Fault_Zone
– http://www.cnn.com/2015/07/24/us/earthquake-san-francisco-hayward-fault-irpt/
– http://www.johnmartin.com/earthquakes/eqpapers/00000066.htm
– http://geology.about.com/od/geology_ca/tp/abouthaywardfault.htm
– http://www.livescience.com/37706-what-is-plate-tectonics.html

San Andreas Fault
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Andreas_Fault
– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2Ow0Yuv5co
– http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-san-andreas-fault-earthquake-20160504-story.html
– http://www.popsci.com/extreme-science-san-andreas

Solar Flares
– http://gizmodo.com/what-would-happen-if-a-massive-solar-storm-hit-the-eart-1724650105
– http://www.foxnews.com/science/2016/04/28/watch-this-breathtaking-video-solar-flare.html
– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ski2JSA-Xh0
– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_flare#Prediction

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When most people think of the “Big One,” they often think about an earthquake caused by the San Andreas Fault. However, there’s actually a more dangerous fault called the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The Cascadia Subduction Zone, also known as the Cascadia Fault, is almost 700 miles long and stretches the west coast of North America from Vancouver Island to Northern California. For some perspective, an earthquake caused by the San Andreas Fault could reach 8.3 on the Richter scale, but a Cascadia earthquake will be more like a 9.2. That means that the quake could shake for up to four and a half minutes.

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Text version: http://www.toptenz.net/10-things-will-happen-big-one-hits-west-coast.php

Coming up:

10. Aftershocks
9. It Will Cause a Devastating Tsunami For North America’s West Coast
8. Japan, Indonesia, The South Pacific, and Hawaii Won’t Be Safe Either
7. Seattle Will Collapse
6. Oregon Would Be Destroyed
5. Canada’s Worst Natural Disaster
4. The San Andreas Fault May Rupture Around the Same Time
3. Disease Epidemic
2. The West Coast of North America Would Burn
1. Death and Destruction

Source/Further reading:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/14651248
http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2015/feb/map-outlines-western-oregon-landslide-risks-subduction-zone-earthquake
http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/07/20/the-really-big-one
http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2015/07/pacific-northwest-earthquake-cascadia-fault-massive-destruction
http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2016/03/07/the-big-one-earthquake-simulation_n_9404162.html
http://www.livescience.com/3990-orphan-tsunami-frightening-parent.html
http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/cityplanning/populationdemographics/
http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/07/20/the-really-big-one
https://www2.usgs.gov/faq/categories/9829/3301
http://file.dnr.wa.gov/publications/ger_ic116_csz_scenario_update.pdf
https://www.oregon.gov/DOGAMI/Pages/earthquakes/coastal/CoastalHazardsMain.aspx
http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/TD/TP_RES/docs/reports/2009/2009_seismic_vulnerability.pdf
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/technology/science/how-canada-preparing-earthquake-big-one-1/article31230970/
http://www.tourismtofino.com/activities
http://www.bestplaceincanada.com/cities/victoria
http://www.bcbusiness.ca/tech-science/the-cascadia-fault-an-inconvenient-truth
http://vashonbeprepared.org/AreYouReady/WhyPrepare/Earthquakes.aspx
https://theithacan.org/life-culture/review-san-andreas-film-proves-to-be-a-disaster/
http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2008/apr/scientists-eye-possible-link-between-cascadia-zone-san-andreas-fault
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/a0763098.html
http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/richest-cities-in-the-us.html
http://phys.org/news/2016-07-california-ill-prepared-big-experts.html
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-will-really-happen-california-when-san-andreas-unleashes-big-one-180955432/?no-ist
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2725828/
https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5438a6.htm
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/rosetta-stones/is-the-west-coast-toast-let-s-talk-cascadia/
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/hazards.html
http://bcwwa.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=878:stream-o&catid=14:annual-conference
http://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/local/Map-Largest-California-Wildfires-298309781.html
http://gacc.nifc.gov/nwcc/information/firemap.aspx
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-will-really-happen-california-when-san-andreas-unleashes-big-one-180955432/?no-ist
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-will-really-happen-california-when-san-andreas-unleashes-big-one-180955432/?no-ist

Supervolcano blast would blanket U.S. in ash
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/supervolcano-blast-would-blanket-us-ash
“Others are engaging even in an eco- type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves.” William S. Cohen
http://archive.defense.gov/Transcripts/Transcript.aspx?TranscriptID=674
Supervolcano blast would blanket U.S. in ash
https://www.sciencenews.org/sites/default/files/main/articles/scivis_860.jpg

Yellowstone Supervolcano Earthquake Swarm Now One of Biggest on Record, With Over 2,300 Tremors
https://www.yahoo.com/news/yellowstone-supervolcano-earthquake-swarm-now-130532059.html

Yellowstone Earthquake Monitoring Map
https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/yellowstone/monitoring_map.html

Volcanic Ash Winter
https://www.accuweather.com/en/weather-news/volcanic-ash-winter-rain-a-pot/51097

Space Weapons International Treaty
https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/house-bill/2977/titles

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Text version: http://www.toptenz.net/10-things-happen-illegal-immigrants-left-us.php

Coming up:

10. Hundreds of Billions of Dollars Will Be Spent
9. Many White Collar Jobs Will Be Left Empty
8. Homicide Rates will Likely Drop In Certain Areas
7. Real Estate Values Will Drop
6. Repatriates Will Be Abused
5. Billions of Dollars in Government Support would be Freed
4. The Dairy Industry Would Be Devastated
3. Farm Businesses would be Destroyed
2. The Construction Industry will be Hit Hardest
1. Unskilled Worker Wages Will Increase

Source/Further reading:

http://www.newsweek.com/how-much-would-it-cost-deport-all-undocumented-immigrants-364316

Government Spends More on Corporate Welfare Subsidies than Social Welfare Programs


http://time.com/3651697/afghanistan-war-cost/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2015/10/15/heres-why-the-iraq-war-may-have-helped-trigger-the-financial-crisis/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/03/27/where-americas-undocumented-immigrants-work/
http://immigrationimpact.com/2015/07/08/immigrants-are-less-likely-to-be-criminals-than-the-native-born/
www.nationalreview.com/corner/424858/americans-are-right-worry-about-illegal-aliens-and-crime-peter-kirsanow
http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/american-dream-undocumented
http://www.bankrate.com/finance/real-estate/5-rules-for-the-empty-home-next-door-1.aspx
https://www.theguardian.com/global/2015/may/17/deported-to-mexico-immigration-america
http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2016/sep/01/donald-trump/donald-trump-says-illegal-immigration-costs-113-bi/
http://www.thefiscaltimes.com/2015/04/16/Study-Finds-Illegal-Immigrants-Pay-118B-Taxes
http://www.agweb.com/article/losing-immigrant-workers-on-dairy-farms-would-nearly-double-retail-milk-prices-naa-news-release/
http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-dairy-immigration-20150330-story.html
https://mic.com/articles/8272/alabama-illegal-immigrant-crackdown-destroys-farm-business
https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/alabama-tried-a-donald-trump-style-immigration-law-it-failed-in-a-big-way/2015/08/22/2ae239a6-48f2-11e5-846d-02792f854297_story.html
http://www.bctd.org/Newsroom/Blogs/Presidents-Message/May-2010-(1)/The-800-Pound-Gorilla-That-Sits-in-the-Middle-of-A.aspx
https://www.consumeraffairs.com/news/experts-fewer-illegal-immigrants-means-higher-housing-costs-021716.html
http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324251504578580041922193264

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