The Articles of Confederation gave the United States their name, but even beyond that, they exposed many of the issues that would underlie this new nation for the rest of its history. James Portnow interviews series writer Soraya Een Hajji about the Articles of Confederation!
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Before the U.S. Constitution was the law of the land, there were the Articles of Confederation. Find out why they didn’t last long.
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When you think of hearing aids, what do you picture? Maybe an image of Beethoven comes to mind, with an ear trumpet placed against a piano. Ear trumpets were the first form of hearing aid to be commercially produced. They operated by concentrating sound waves from a large area, and focusing those waves into the ear canal. They were remarkably adept at this function, given that they contained no moving parts. However, they were a cumbersome solution the problem of being unable to hear. After all, who wants to take a foot long funnel with them everywhere they go? I can’t speak for anyone else, but this author would rather not.
With advances in electronics, new forms of hearing aids were developed. One of the first used a cord connecting a box the size of a pack of cards to a mold that fit within the ear. These hearing aids were dubbed the body assisted hearing aid. The sound was actually picked up by the box. The box itself could be worn on a belt, and the cord could be routed up to the ear underneath clothing. Still, the visual impact of this device was fairly large in comparison to what was to follow.
The most common form of hearing aid for several decades was a behind the ear aid. In this setup, a small device was placed behind an ear to pick up sound. The device operated similarly to the larger box in the body assisted hearing aid. Instead of a cord running all the way up from your waist, these aids ran a small tube over the top of the ear and into the ear canal, where it was connected to a small speaker which would relay the sounds directly into the inner ear. It worked much more effectively than the body assisted aids because it had a smaller tube length, which led to less distortion.
Advances in technology have allowed us to replace the tube, which was originally about the diameter of a straw, with a tiny wire that is all but invisible to onlookers. The analogue transmission methods originally used have also been replaced by digital transmission, which cuts down on the “fake” sound that was caused by hearing everything through a tube.
Still more compact than the behind the ear hearing aids are the in-ear variety. These aids fit entirely within the outer ear canal, and are often invisible to anyone who isn’t looking directly into your ear. They omit the entire transmission process as the same bit of machinery is both receiver and transmitter. They are among the least visible hearing aids around, and they can even be made to only fit into part of the ear canal, so that those with only partial frequency hearing loss can still hear other frequencies normally.
The technologies available now are a far cry from lugging around a trumpet to stick into your head. This is something that anyone who could use a hearing aid is thankful for. After all, hearing loss is a delicate issue for many. The less impact a hearing aid presents socially, the happier the wearer is.
Jennifer R. Scott has been writing for over ten years on a broad range of topics. She has a background that includes such diverse areas as environmentalism, cooking, pet care, and fashion. If you’d like more information on hearing augmentation, please visit Hearing Aids, a supplier of hearing aids, batteries, and more.
Caribbean food culture combines the style of Dutch, American Indian, African, French, Chinese East Indian, Spanish, and Indian cuisines. These food cultures were introduced by earlier migrants. Over the years various migrant populations have developed their unique food styles that largely represent the regional food culture.
Caribbean’s are fond of rice and they prepare various dishes using it. A rice preparation is incomplete without a tasty accompaniment. Generally various types of sauces and beans are savored along with the rice. Although rice is a staple diet of the island, still the method of preparation varies from region to another. Peas, beans and coconut are usually used for seasoning the rice. The yellow and brown colored rice is mainly used as the side dish.
Caribbean cuisine can boast of large number of succulent and tasty meat preparations. Goat meat is savored throughout the island with much fancy and love. French Caribbean, Jamaican, Guadeloupean, and Haitian populations enjoy goat meats. Caribbean goat meat stew has been accorded the title of National dish of Montserrat. This tomato based goat meat stew is also the signature dish of St. Kitts and Nevis. Other than goat meat, breadfruit, green pawpaw or pappaya, and dumplings (droppers) are the other substances used in the preparation of the stew. Similarly Callaloo is a famous green dish which is savored and favored throughout the Caribbean islands. Vegetables like okra and other greens are used in the preparation of the dish. Anglophone Caribbean, or Cook-Up or Pelau is another popular meat dish which is enjoyed throughout the Caribbean Islands. The fleshy ingredients like beef, pigeon peas, chicken, saltfish, or vegetables are used in preparation of the dish. Other than that goat curry and chicken is popular throughout the Anglophone Caribbean islands.
Caribbean’s are fond of sharp and spicy flavors and most of the dishes are tilted towards either of these flavors. Caribbean’s largely use the left over meats to prepare several dishes and they spike it with sharp spices to make them tasty and appeasing. Caribbean’s use allspice, ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg and lime to flavorise their food preparations.
Caribbean’s are also fond of seafood and various dishes are prepared using shark, lobster and conch. A fried shark sandwich is served throughout Trinidad and Tobago, other than that cascadura fish and crab preparations are also famous throughout the island. Similarly conch preparation is savored throughout Haiti, Bahamas and Belize. Deep fried fritters is considered to be the signature dish of these islands.. The batter for the fritter is prepared by combining minced meat, dough and seasonings.
For more details on some fantastic African recipes please look at African Recipe. You can also take a look at Pakistani recipes by visiting pakistani recipes
The first thing that should be known is that what is psychology? Psychology is an empirical science dealing with the bio-social behavior with reference to its environment. The study of this field in philosophical context dates backs to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India and Persia. This article describes the history of psychology starting from the first concept introduced to this world.
Firstly, Structuralism, this was introduced by a German Physician Wilhelm Wundt. The method of inspection used in this field was introspection also known as self observation. This field made use of the conscious mind and sensation of the person to find the answer to the question or any problem. This method is no longer in practice however, as it was not reliable. Wilhelm is also known as father of psychology as he started experimental psychology, set up the first experimental psychology lab and gave the first systematic psychology book to the world. The second step in history was Functionalism which was formed as the reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought. This field focused on the mind of the people and that how did it adapted to the environment and the people surrounding it. The main contributor to this school of thought was William James.
The third school of thought in the evolution of the psychology was named Psychoanalysis. The main contributor to this field was Sigmund Freud. It is a method of investigation of the mind and the way one thinks, a form of psychotherapy and a systemized set of theories related to the human behavior. The fourth school of thought was Behaviorism. It was founded by John B. Watson. It dealt with the theories that how people are affected by their environment and that they learn their behavior form the society they live in and later Skinner also introduced his theory in this school of thought named S-O-R or Stimulus organism response. The fourth school of thought is Humanistic. It was developed in reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis. This approach glimpse the human as the whole, it does not focuses on only one specific point of human life or personality. The fifth Step is Gestlat psychology. It is a science of perceiving a whole picture, not just the fragments of a picture. It helps in telling about the personality of a person. The major contributor to this science was Max Wertheimer but Kohler and Koffka also helped a lot.
The sixth school of thought to be developed was Cognitivism. It studies the mental processes and in addition to that it studied the way that how people think, remember and learn. The main contributors to this field were George Miller and Albert Ellis. The seventh School of thought was Biopsychosocial model. It is an integrated perspective. This science is the study and understanding on the consciousness, behavior and social relationships. This science assumes that the way one live, act and think is highly affected by the social culture he belongs to.
One of the best sources for easy, hands-on social studies activities is the History Pockets series of books. These books provide many ideas for history activities without much planning or preparation for the teacher. Each title in the series is packed with projects, which are all meant to be photocopied for every student. Best of all, most of the completed projects are flat so they can be stored in the students’ History Notebooks. The series consists of several titles for Grades 1-3, and then more titles for Grades 4-6.
Each book concentrates on one historical theme, and that main topic is then divided into several specific areas, such as Daily Life, Government, Religion, etc. In each of these areas you will find several projects that will fit into a “Pocket” made from folded construction paper. The Pockets are then hole-punched and bound together with string or ribbon to create a Pocket Book.
It is also an option to simply pick out several of the suggested social studies activities without making any pockets. Since the projects are not bulky, students could easily store individual ones in their own History Notebooks. However, even if you make the Pocket Book as instructed, it could still be put in a notebook with the same punched holes that were meant for binding the book together.
To give you a general idea of what each History Pocket book includes, let’s take an in-depth look at the Ancient Greece book for Grades 4-6. The activities start with decorated Facts pages, a Map activity, and a Timeline that is ready to cut out and assemble. The Timeline guides the students with illustrations and captions to add information as they progress. You will also find writing activities, creative booklets to put together and decorate, and plenty of low-fuss crafts. In this book, the crafts include making a Hoplite Shield, an Alexander the Great banner, Mosaic (paper) tiles, a booklet of Olympian gods, Greek coins, and more. The instructions for Knucklebones tells you first how to make the game and then how to play it.
This book is about 100 pages long, and most of those pages are meant to be photocopied for student use, giving you lots of ideas to choose from. The Greek book has instructions for 9 separate Pockets with activities on a different theme of Ancient Greece, including Daily Life, Religion, Military Power, Art & Architecture, Government, Sports & Entertainment, and more.
If you are looking for social studies activities for your classroom, you will want to see all the ideas in the History Pockets books. Your students can be actively engaged in your historical topic by making these creative projects. The books give a wide selection of crafts and save the teacher from excessive preparation time. This is a resource you will want to add to your history lesson plans.
Carol Henderson maintains an eStore of Teacher Resource Books available as downloadable PDF files. She also has a separate website to provide History Resources for social studies teachers.