Posts Tagged ‘Language’

How it is developed: The English language is today the most widely spoken of any language in the world. It is not only the native language of Britain and many other countries but it is also being learn by people of nations everywhere as the foreign language most useful to know.

How did it come to be the English language?

The English language was introduced into Britain by the Anglo- Saxons when they invaded the island in the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries from Europe. It was different from modern English as we know it, as all languages change through the centuries, but the words these people brought over become the basis of English. New words have been added even since then, as new ideas, institutions and inventions were adopted and the words for them needed.

When St. Augustine brought Christianity to England in the 6th century, he brought too, a set of Latin, and Greek words connected with region – words such as altar, nun and creed. The Norsemen from Scandinavia who invaded England in the 9th and 10th centuries spoke a branch of the Germanic language related to the language of the original Anglo-Saxon settlers; it is probable that the two people could understand each other, and the Norsemen introduced many new worlds into language. Some of these took the place of older English words of the same meaning: sky, leg, knife, egg and follow are example of words introduced at this time. When the Normans came from France in the year 1066, they introduced a host of French words dealing with law and government, the church , hunting and chivalry – words such as attorney, assize, saint and feudal. When Caxton first began to print in the English language, he choose books such as Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales written in the dialect of the southeast of England and this had enormous influence on the language spoken in other parts of the country.

When the revival of learning influenced England in the 16th century, more Latin words poured in_ words such as operate and horticulture. And as Englishmen began to sail round the world to found colonies in distant lands and came into touch with distant people, so they brought back words from everywhere.

When new sciences came into being during the last century, many new words needed to be invented to describe the new ideas, such as telegram and psychology. Today the English of the old world is much influenced by the English of the new world and the U.S.A has sent across the Atlantic in its films and plays many new words to describe the things and situations that began over.

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Any savvy high school student has known that he or she should take Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses if he or she wants to be a competitive applicant to top universities. College admissions are definitely getting more and more competitive, but high school students are getting more and more strategic, even the ones who can’t afford to go to the elite prep schools that are essentially breeding grounds for the Ivy League.

And while it’s certainly in the student’s interest to take as many Honors, Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses as he or she can, it’s also important to be reasonable. It’s unlikely that any student can handle a full course load of AP courses, especially if he or she wants to participate in the extracurricular activities that admissions committees really like to see (oh and maybe see their friends and have some fun occasionally, too).

Students should think critically about their skill set when choosing which AP courses to take. It’s rare to find someone who excels at every single subject to the degree that that he or she can score a 3 or higher on the Advanced Placement test for that subject. (And it must be really hard to like the people who are.) Students should think about what classes they’ve loved and succeeded in in the past. Does she love to read? Does she recite Othello quotes in her sleep? Then maybe the AP English Language course is a good one to take.

Students should consider both if they will get a strong grade in the course (“B” at the minimum, preferably an “A”) and if they can earn a passing grade on the AP exams. Admissions committees look at the rigor of a student’s course load (how many advanced courses they take, over how many different disciplines), the overall grade point average (top colleges are turning away truckloads of students with un-weighted 4.0 GPAs), and also if the student is taking an Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams, and what scores the student is earning on those exams.

Admissions committees want to see that students are challenging themselves in their course load, but they also want to see that the students are succeeding in those more challenging courses. This is why it’s not advantageous for a student to just take as many AP or IB courses as his or her school offers, unless he or she is truly certain of earning a high grade in the course. If the student doesn’t know if he or she will earn a passing grade on the AP or IB exam, that’s less of a deciding factor.

Taking the exam and not earning a passing score is not a deal-breaker for most colleges. A passing score is considered icing on the cake, and not-passing score is not a detractor. University admissions departments don’t want to discourage students from attempting the AP Microeconomics test just because they’re not sure if they’ll earn a score of a 2 or 3. Students are rewarded for taking the challenging courseload, as well as the exam, and if they earn a high score, it’s great, but if they don’t, they shouldn’t stress about it, at least as far as getting into college concerned.

Paul Thomson is a writer and frequent online contributor who is passionate about improving college readiness. He frequently writes about the http://www.shmoop.com/ap-english-language/ >AP English language and http://www.shmoop.com/ap-microeconomics/>AP Microeconomics . In his spare time, he loves to promote the joy of reading to youth in his community.

A high school French teacher is being accused of not speaking the language.

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Something that has become almost essential nowadays is to take on the task of learning another language. The picking of the second language to learn can cause considerable difficulty. The choice one makes often depends upon one’s interests, employment, and goals in life. For instance, those that choose to learning hebrew do so for scholarly reasons, for business or for their religion.

The study of the original text of the bible makes it necessary for scholars to understand the language that was used to write it. Thus they are forced to have more than just a familiarity with the Hebrew language. Instead they must acquire a certain fluency in order to gain a better understanding of the recorded history that is tied up in the pages of a book that is the most known in the world. Once that understanding is gained, what is read becomes more than just history, it is alive to them.

Some of the resources that a scholar uses to facilitate the acquisition of the language are quite varied. They may use language courses, textbooks, video, and audio compact discs. Each serves a specific function to a learner. For example, the compact discs help one to practice speaking the language while books help in improving the reading skills.

Since the world is starting to resemble a global community more and more with each passing day, those who work in business see the need for learning another tongue. Choosing the Hebrew language may be prompted by the fact that it is spoken by those individuals who are a part of one of the world’s most influential economies. Thus, an advantage might be gained through the acquisition of fluency. After all, one wishes to show a bit of courtesy in the form of speaking to another in his or her native tongue.

Those who for religious reasons wish to learn the Hebrew language do so to demonstrate their devotion to their beliefs. They also wish to perform certain ceremonies and rites in a way that is proper by using the words that are precisely correct. Without that particular option, many would have the feeling that what they have just gone through is not complete.

What is interesting is that the language was under restriction until the nineteenth century. It was used only in formal context such as in meditation and prayer. In fact because of its status as a holy language, it was the height of vulgarity to use it in every day conversations.

One major reason for the use of the language in only specific settings is that it was believed to be the language used when our world and universe were created. Thus, the spoken word and not the written one were believed to be one of the most powerful creative tools in existence. After all, it brought the entirety of creation into existence from nothing at all. Therefore to use it in anything other than prayer and meditation was the ultimate blasphemy.

The devout and the scholarly do not have the exclusive rights to learning hebrew nowadays. They do, however, need it to learn about world history and to gain a greater understanding of it. Those in secular fields can also use vocabulary audio in order to better conduct their business in a more courteous fashion.

Disclaimer: it is not my intention to criticize any specific company or individual living overseas (outside of the United States). It simply describes my experiences in the past when I have attempted to work with freelance writers to secure content for my own websites. Your experiences may be different…

If you live and work within the United States, or need to provide content for a US-based audience, you may have already discovered how challenging it is to find a reputable overseas firm to prepare these materials for you. In this article I would like to outline my own experiences, and also share with you some tips on how to avoid potential problems when dealing with such companies or individuals.

Problems and Shortcomings

Based on my experience in the past, there can be many potential difficulties in dealing with overseas content providers. Chief among them are the following —

1. Quality. While I am sure that there are providers who take great pride in the quality of the work that is submitted, my general experience has been that these overseas content providers oftentimes get careless and submit work that is filled with grammatical and spelling errors. Sometimes this is due to a lack of knowledge of the English language, but I suspect that much of the time this sloppiness is simply due to the fact that these firms operate in an “assembly line” fashion. The company must churn out a high volume of articles, web pages, e-books and other materials in order to remain profitable — which means that they will probably not spend a lot of time in researching or proofreading.

2.Style. Related to this is the problem that often these overseas content providers do not employ writers who can write using natural U.S. English. You will find that this is especially true if, like me, you are targeting an audience in the United States — as most of these firms employee people living in former British colonies, where their exposure to the English language is in the British form rather than the American style of writing.

3. Availability. Another thing I discovered when I used to rely on overseas written content producers is that many of these folks are here today, and gone tomorrow. In some locations of the world a kind of cottage industry has sprung up, with many different people trying their hand at writing English language materials — but many of them simply don’t stay in business. It is frustrating to find that someone that you have been dealing with suddenly goes out of business without any warning. If you need online content produced on a regular basis this is simply not an acceptable situation.

4. Uniqueness. Other companies that I have dealt with in the past tried to submit written material to me that was not unique. In some cases portions of text from different online sources were simply copied verbatim and pasted together. Again, some of these firms are simply trying to churn out as much work as possible in the shortest amount of time — and I had some real bad experiences, having paid for material that was not unique at all.

5. Timely Communication. Keep in mind that if you use an overseas firm or individual located in another country to produce your written material, that they will be living in a different location/time zone. If you intend to communicate with them via e-mail, this means that there may be a 24 hour delay before you get a response to any of your communications. If you have a telephone number, you may still not be able to contact them outside of their office hours, and will have to pay long distance charges. Again, not a great situation, especially if you are looking to forge a long-term relationship with your content providers.

Learn from My Mistakes

If you feel that you must — absolutely must — deal with an overseas content producer, then learn from my mistakes and insist on the following:

Do not ever pay 100% of your fees upfront. It is certainly acceptable to pay a portion before you receive anything, but to protect yourself try to make arrangements to use some sort of an escrow account to hold all funds. With a true escrow account you, as the customer, will be able to control when those funds are released to the freelance writers. In the meantime they will be able to verify the amount of money in the escrow account, so they know that they will not get ripped off either.
Remember, once you have paid in full you will have NO negotiating leverage with a writer to be able to request that rewrites or corrections be made to their material. Make sure that your content is EXACTLY the way you want/need it to be before making that final payment!
Always insist on writing samples when dealing with an overseas writing firm. It is the only way that you can verify that the quality of the writing will be up to your standards. An individual or company who is unwilling to supply you with samples should be avoided at all costs!
Whenever possible, get the phone number and physical address (including number, street name, city or town, province, postal code, etc.) for your records. Do not rely solely on an e-mail address! If that e-mail address suddenly becomes nonfunctional, how will you communicate? Without a phone number and/or physical address, you will be left high and dry.
Finally, always inform your overseas content producers that their submitted work must be 100% unique. Tell them that you will be submitting this content to the Copyscape web service, and that their material must “pass” before you will send a payment/final payment.

In conclusion: consider very carefully both the potential risks — as well as the possible benefits — before you make the decision to use someone overseas for the preparation of your English-language materials. “Let the buyer beware!”

Howdy. . . Let me introduce myself. My name is Slim Walker, and for years I struggled to find good-quality freelance writers. Like many of you, I have tried all the traditional approaches, and I have recently discovered another way. If you are interested in getting more information, please feel free to visit my site at FindAGoodWriter.com
http://www.FindAGoodWriter.com/) . . . There is no cost or obligation for doing so, but I gotta warn you — it might just radically change how you get freelance writing talent for your next online content project!

Whether you’re revising for exams, or just looking for a quick revision guide, this useful video will help you achieve the perfect mark magazine article.
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