Posts Tagged ‘mean’

What is CHILD ABUSE? What does CHILD ABUSE mean? CHILD ABUSE meaning, definition & explanation

What is CHILD ABUSE? What does CHILD ABUSE mean? CHILD ABUSE meaning – CHILD ABUSE pronunciation – CHILD ABUSE definition – CHILD ABUSE explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological mistreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver. It may include any act or failure to act by a parent or other caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a child, and can occur in a child’s home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. The terms child abuse and child maltreatment are often used interchangeably, but some researchers make a distinction between them, treating child maltreatment as an umbrella term to cover neglect, exploitation, and trafficking.

In Western countries, preventing child abuse is considered a high priority, and detailed laws and policies exist to address this issue. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge.

Definitions of what constitutes child abuse vary among professionals and between social and cultural groups, as well as across time. The terms abuse and maltreatment are often used interchangeably in the literature.:11 Child maltreatment can also be an umbrella term covering all forms of child abuse and child neglect. Defining child maltreatment depends on prevailing cultural values as they relate to children, child development, and parenting. Definitions of child maltreatment can vary across the sectors of society which deal with the issue, such as child protection agencies, legal and medical communities, public health officials, researchers, practitioners, and child advocates. Since members of these various fields tend to use their own definitions, communication across disciplines can be limited, hampering efforts to identify, assess, track, treat, and prevent child maltreatment.:3

In general, abuse refers to (usually deliberate) acts of commission while neglect refers to acts of omission. Child maltreatment includes both acts of commission and acts of omission on the part of parents or caregivers that cause actual or threatened harm to a child. Some health professionals and authors consider neglect as part of the definition of abuse, while others do not; this is because the harm may have been unintentional, or because the caregivers did not understand the severity of the problem, which may have been the result of cultural beliefs about how to raise a child. Delayed effects of child abuse and neglect, especially emotional neglect, and the diversity of acts that qualify as child abuse, are also factors.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child abuse and child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.” In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses the term child maltreatment to refer to both acts of commission (abuse), which include “words or overt actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child”, and acts of omission (neglect), meaning “the failure to provide for a child’s basic physical, emotional, or educational needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm”.:11 The United States federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act defines child abuse and neglect as, at minimum, “any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation” and/or “an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm”.

What Might Trump Mean for Chemistry? — Speaking of Chemistry

As Donald Trump becomes president, huge questions remain about his policies affecting the central science. So we’ve started looking for answers. Visit C&EN for more comprehensive coverage: http://cen.acs.org/articles/95/i3/US-science-policy-big-shift.html
↓↓More info and references below↓↓

While presidents tweet, money talks. In this episode, we look how Trump’s economic stances could affect the dollars and cents of chemistry. Huge thanks to Kevin Trenberth and Cal Dooley for their help with this video. Check out the links below for more information.

Kevin Trenberth, Distinguished Senior Scientist | NCAR
http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/staff/trenbert/

The American Chemistry Council
https://www.americanchemistry.com/

For U.S. science policy, big shift ahead | C&EN
http://cen.acs.org/articles/95/i3/US-science-policy-big-shift.html

Historical Trends in Federal R&D | AAAS
https://www.aaas.org/page/historical-trends-federal-rd

Scientists are frantically copying U.S. climate data, fearing it might vanish under Trump | WaPo
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/12/13/scientists-are-frantically-copying-u-s-climate-data-fearing-it-might-vanish-under-trump/

Trump’s space policy reaches for Mars and the stars | Space News

Op-ed | Trump’s space policy reaches for Mars and the stars

Earth scientists are freaking out. NASA urges calm | Space News

Earth scientists are freaking out. NASA urges calm.

Trump promises to ‘lift the restrictions on American energy’ | LA Times
http://www.latimes.com/politics/la-fi-trump-fracking-20160922-snap-story.html

Earth data visualizations are all from NASA. Check them out here http://climate.nasa.gov/resources/graphics-and-multimedia/

Speaking of Chemistry is a production of Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly news magazine of the American Chemical Society.
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The Chemistry of Fried Food

You know it, and you love it. Fried food! But there’s more to fried dishes than just plopping food into hot oil. You have to know what’s up with the food you’re cooking and what oils will work best for you dish.

Hosted by: Olivia Gordon
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Sources:
General:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19595388 (I got a pdf of this, which I can send to you via email)
http://cst.ur.ac.rw/library/Food%20Science%20books/batch1/Marcel%20Dekker,.Food%20Chemistry,%203rd%20Edition..pdf (frying starts at page 292)
Fair Food: The Science of Deep-Frying
http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/03/24/470396393/fry-and-fry-again-the-science-secrets-to-the-double-fry
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/deep-fat-frying-and-food-safety/ct_index
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/amanda-greene/back-to-basics-the-scienc_b_3276776.html
http://www.finecooking.com/item/48328/the-science-of-frying
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Frying.aspx

Batter:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20623702
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/beer-batter-is-better/
http://www.livestrong.com/article/530119-when-deep-frying-how-is-batter-different-with-milk-or-eggs/
http://www.foodarts.com/tools/equipment/13431/the-frying-game
https://www.finedininglovers.com/stories/what-is-tempura-batter/
http://www.finecooking.com/articles/light-delicate-tempura.aspx?pg=1
http://www.livescience.com/33128-why-does-beer-foam-.html

Oils:
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/HealthyEating/Nutrition/Saturated-Fats_UCM_301110_Article.jsp#.V-g7CpMrLVo
http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/cooking-oil/faq-20058170
http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/the-truth-about-fats-bad-and-good
https://authoritynutrition.com/healthiest-oil-for-deep-frying/
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-33675975
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00352.x/full?wol1URL=/doi/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00352.x/full&regionCode=US-OH&identityKey=b97a5e3f-f919-4eaf-a79b-f49f55337a2c
http://www.foodarts.com/tools/equipment/13431/the-frying-game

Images: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Deep_Fried_Oreo.JPG
Deep Fryer: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frituren.jpg
Chicken Bubbling: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Deep_frying_chicken_upper_wing.JPG
Donuts: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jack%27s_Donuts.jpg
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What is ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS? What does ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS mean? ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS meaning – ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS definition – ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world. It exerts influence on a large range of disciplines including environmental law, environmental sociology, ecotheology, ecological economics, ecology and environmental geography.

There are many ethical decisions that human beings make with respect to the environment. For example:

Should humans continue to clear cut forests for the sake of human consumption?
Why should humans continue to propagate its species, and life itself?
Should humans continue to make gasoline-powered vehicles?
What environmental obligations do humans need to keep for future generations?
Is it right for humans to knowingly cause the extinction of a species for the convenience of humanity?
How should humans best use and conserve the space environment to secure and expand life?

The academic field of environmental ethics grew up in response to the work of scientists such as Rachel Carson and events such as the first Earth Day in 1970, when environmentalists started urging philosophers to consider the philosophical aspects of environmental problems. Two papers published in Science had a crucial impact: Lynn White’s “The Historical Roots of our Ecologic Crisis” (March 1967) and Garrett Hardin’s “The Tragedy of the Commons” (December 1968). Also influential was Garett Hardin’s later essay called “Exploring New Ethics for Survival”, as well as an essay by Aldo Leopold in his A Sand County Almanac, called “The Land Ethic,” in which Leopold explicitly claimed that the roots of the ecological crisis were philosophical (1949).

The first international academic journals in this field emerged from North America in the late 1970s and early 1980s – the US-based journal Environmental Ethics in 1979 and the Canadian-based journal The Trumpeter: Journal of Ecosophy in 1983. The first British based journal of this kind, Environmental Values, was launched in 1992.
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Trump wants to eliminate the Clean Power Plan, and that’s just for starters. Cenk Uygur and John Iadarola, hosts of The Young Turks, break it down. Tell us what you think in the comment section below. http://tytnetwork.com/go

“President Donald Trump on Tuesday signed an order to undo Obama-era climate change regulations, keeping a campaign promise to support the coal industry and calling into question U.S. support for an international deal to fight global warming.

Flanked by coal miners and coal company executives, Trump proclaimed his “Energy Independence” executive order at the headquarters of the Environmental Protection Agency.

The move drew swift backlash from a coalition of 23 states and local governments, as well as environmental groups, which called the decree a threat to public health and vowed to fight it in court.

The order’s main target is former President Barack Obama’s Clean Power Plan, which required states to slash carbon emissions from power plants – a key factor in the United States’ ability to meet its commitments under a climate change accord reached by nearly 200 countries in Paris in 2015.”*

Read more here: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-energy-idUSKBN16Z1L6

Hosts: Cenk Uygur, John Iadarola
Cast: Cenk Uygur, John Iadarola

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Download audio and video of the full two hour show on-demand + the members-only post game show by becoming a member at http://www.tytnetwork.com/join/. Your membership supports the day to day operations and is vital for our continued success and growth.

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What is APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY? What does APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY mean? APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY meaning – APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY definition – APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Applied psychology is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behavior and experience. Mental health, organizational psychology, business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law are just a few of the areas that have been influenced by the application of psychological principles and findings. Some of the areas of applied psychology include clinical psychology, counseling psychology, evolutionary psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, legal psychology, neuropsychology, occupational health psychology, human factors, forensic psychology, engineering psychology, school psychology, sports psychology, traffic psychology, community psychology, medical psychology. In addition, a number of specialized areas in the general field of psychology have applied branches (e.g., applied social psychology, applied cognitive psychology). However, the lines between sub-branch specializations and major applied psychology categories are often blurred. For example, a human factors psychologist might use a cognitive psychology theory. This could be described as human factor psychology or as applied cognitive psychology.

The founder of applied psychology was Hugo Münsterberg. He came to America from Italy, and, like many aspiring psychologists during the late 19th century, originally studied philosophy. Münsterberg had many interests in the field of psychology such as purposive psychology, social psychology and forensic psychology. In 1907 he wrote several magazine articles concerning legal aspects of testimony, confessions and courtroom procedures, which eventually developed into his book, On the Witness Stand. The following year the Division of Applied Psychology was adjoined to the Harvard Psychological Laboratory. Within 9 years he had contributed eight books in English, applying psychology to education, industrial efficiency, business and teaching. Eventually Hugo Münsterberg and his contributions would define him as the creator of applied psychology. In 1920, the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP) was founded, as the first international scholarly society within the field of psychology.

Most professional psychologists in the U.S. worked in an academic setting until World War II. But during the war, the armed forces and the Office of Strategic Services hired psychologists in droves to work on issues such as troop morale and propaganda design. After the war, psychologists found an expanding range of jobs outside of the academy. Since 1970, the number of college graduates with degrees in psychology has more than doubled, from 33,679 to 76,671 in 2002. The annual numbers of masters’ and PhD degrees have also increased dramatically over the same period. All the while, degrees in the related fields of economics, sociology, and political science have remained constant.

Professional organizations have organized special events and meetings to promote the idea of applied psychology. In 1990, the American Psychological Society held a Behavioral Science Summit and formed the “Human Capital Initiative”, spanning schools, workplace productivity, drugs, violence, and community health. The American Psychological Association declared 2000–2010 the Decade of Behavior, with a similarly broad scope. Psychological methods are considered applicable to all aspects of human life and society.

What is RECYCLING? What does RECYCLING mean? RECYCLING meaning – RECYCLING pronunciation – RECYCLING definition – RECYCLING explanation – How to pronounce RECYCLING?

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into reusable objects to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, energy usage, air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by decreasing the need for “conventional” waste disposal and lowering greenhouse gas emissions compared to plastic production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle” waste hierarchy.

There are some ISO standards related to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice.

Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, tires, textiles and electronics. The composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste—such as food or garden waste—is also considered recycling. Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection centre or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned and reprocessed into new materials destined for manufacturing.

In the strictest sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material—for example, used office paper would be converted into new office paper, or used polystyrene foam into new polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so “recycling” of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (for example, paperboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value (suc